TIME TO JUMP REFERENCES
Click here to download a pdf of the references detailed below.
The issue is one of who runs the country: in Switzerland, both major updates to the 1972 EU-Swiss Free Trade Agreement, known as Bilaterals I (1999) and Bilaterals II (2004) had to be put directly to voters, with support by 67.2% of Swiss voters for Bilateral I and 54.6% of the Schengen Agreement (open border) component of Bilateral 2 receiving assent.
Fresh Start Project, Chapter 1, Trade
These countries have large trade surpluses with the EU, whilst in contrast the UK runs a massive deficit with the EU in trade – a staggering £56 billion a year in goods
(Hansard Reply 14th November 2012)
Norway also exports five times per capita more to the EU in goods than the UK and Switzerland three times per capita so are relatively far more dependent on trade with the EU than we are.
Global Britain Briefing Note 62
To this, members of EFTA countries point out that firstly they only have to implement approximately around 300 measures of 1,000 EU measures produced every year, as only these are EEA relevant
Tore Grønningsæter, EFTA, in personal interview
These prophecies of disaster were forgotten within days of a No to the EU vote as Norway powered forward to become one of the richest countries in the world with the world’s largest Sovereign Wealth Fund – now valued at $740 billion for Norway’s 5 million people
and population reference – http://www.newsinenglish.no/2012/03/18/norwegians-now-number-5-million/
and the lowest unemployment in Europe. Now the polls consistently show that over 70% of Norwegians want to stay out of the EU.
The old adage that ‘half our exports are with the EU so we must be in the EU’ is fast looking feeble and outdated – the UK now exports more to the Rest of the World than the EU (60% of UK exports) and the EU is not only flat-lining in terms of growth, or seeing serious falls in the Eurozone area, correspondingly larger than the UK (with meagre but positive growth) but the EU is also losing its share of world wealth dramatically – from 36% of world GDP in 1980 to a forecast of 15% by 2020 (or possibly even 12%).
In a similar way, claims of loss of foreign direct investment from withdrawal, when surveys show that EU membership represents only a tangential factor, whilst the City, culture, infrastructure and the English language are factors that regularly come out higher, such as in the major Ernst & Young study of 2010.
Ernst & Young Press Release dated 2nd June 2010:
One of the odd features of this debate is that the only party committed to a British exit from the EU, Ukip, appears to have little understanding of how this could, in practice, be achieved – let alone a positive vision of how well Britain could fare outside it, to counterbalance the relentless defeatism and negativity with which the “consensus” establishment would seek to terrify us into staying in.”
CHRISTOPER BOOKER, THE DAILY TELEGRAPH 13TH JULY 2013
“I am certainly not a backward-looking “little Englander”. On the contrary, I have great confidence that Britain and the British people could thrive outside the EU.
I am not afraid that all will be lost. Indeed, I am confident we have much more to gain from the outward-looking, entrepreneurial spirit that has long definedus, than if we stay bickering, fighting and losing within a passé political structure that is wholly unnatural to us.”
HELENA MORRISSEY CBE, CEO OF NEWTON INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND FOUNDER OF THE 30% CLUB
“It may appear that the Opposition are united against the British people in refusing them a chance to have their say, but I do not believe that is true. I believe that at least a substantial number of them are split. They know that the people need to have a say on this important issue and even though their leader has chosen not to be here and lead them today, I hope he will summon up the strength in the future to take a firm position and will back the Bill.”
“…as many Labour voters want the Bill to succeed as do Conservative voters. This matters across the political divide, which is why I welcome those hon. Members, from whatever party, who have said that they support what we are trying to do, and I am grateful to the Prime Minister and the Conservative party leadership for getting full square behind what we are trying to do. I think that this is something that unites the nation in agreement: we trust the British people and want to give them a voice.”
JAMES WHARTON MP, SPEECH REACHING OUT TO NON-CONSERVATIVE MEMBERS AS A NON-POLITICAL CASE, 5TH JULY 2013
The British were then allowed to join in order to pay for it, and even now CAP still accounts for 43% of the EU budget. The BBC reported in July 2013 that the ‘budget for direct farm payments (subsidies) and rural development – the twin ‘pillars’ of the CAP – is 57.5 billion euros (£49 billion) out of a total of 132.8 billion euros.
Why We Can Leave: The Top Ten EU Myths About Withdrawal Exposed
The Reality: If Britain leaves the EU it will put in place of its EU membership a UK/EU Free Trade Agreement such as the EEA Lite Agreement presented in this book to preserve the benefits of trade with the EU. The EU sells much more to us than we sell to them: currently, the UK’s trade deficit in manufactured goods with the EU was £43 billion.
So, in theory, if there was the very worst case of a trade war and no trade at all with the EU, the UK would lose the three million jobs which depend on trade with the EU (10% of all UK jobs).
(Note: The BBC quoted ONS statistics that there were 29.16 million in work. Three million jobs therefore represents 10% of the total), whilst the EU would lose some four million jobs.
Global Vision – UK-EU Trade creates far fewer jobs in the UK than in the rest of the EU, Ruth Lea
This simply won’t happen, as the EU would not want to lose their biggest customer. Even the Lisbon Treaty requires the EU to make a withdrawal agreement (trade and political) with a nation that leaves the EU (under Article 50).
But whilst both these countries run a strong surplus with the EU, the UK now runs a massive deficit – some £43 billion deficit for goods
The Reality: The world has changed considerably since the UK joined in 1973. The EU has Free Trade Agreements in place with 43 countries
Indeed, the EU is very keen on Free Trade Agreements for it is negotiating – or close to conclusion of – a further 89 such agreements and is seeking to open negotiations with an additional 6 countries.
Non-EU EFTA nations already have 26 Trade Agreements covering 36 nations around the world and Switzerland has just signed an FTA with China,
at a time when a mini trade war has broken out between the EU and China over solar panels and China has slapped tariffs on French wines in response.
The EU now exempts services and many goods from duties anyway. This meant that in 2011 the UK charged an average customs duty rate of less than one per cent on non-EU imports.
Global Britain Briefing Note: 76. Dated May 2012
Nor is the EU the place where most economic growth is taking place: the EU’s share of world’s GDP is forecast to decline to 15% in 2020, down from 36% in 1980.
The EU already has Free Trade Agreements with individual countries across the world, regardless of such trading blocs. Countries such as Norway and Switzerland are not in the EU, yet they export far more per capita to the EU than the UK does.
Global Britain Briefing Note No. 62
This suggests membership of the EU is not required for healthy trading relationships to exist between independent nation states and the EU.
The think tank Global Britain found that some 47% per cent of UK exports go to the EU compared with 63% for Germany and 64% for France. However, 18% of British exports go to the US whereas for Germany, it is only 7%.
Global Britain Briefing Note No. 66
Many Eurozone members are registering disastrous economic contraction: such as Greece which has fallen 20% since 2008 and is predicted to fall to 25% below 2008 levels by 2014
and Portugal also by 15%.
The Reality: EU directives and regulations are subject to a ‘rachet’ effect – once they are in place they are highly unlikely to be reformed or repealed. Less than 10% of Britain’s GDP
Global Britain Briefing Note No. 67
(N.B. The official figure of 11.1% is too high as this includes the Rotterdam-Antwerp Effect and the Netherlands Distortion) represents trade with the EU yet Brussels’ regulations afflict 100% of the UK economy; an economy which is the world’s sixth largest.
reporting findings of the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR in December 2012)
In 2006, former Competition Commissioner Verheugen estimated that EU over-regulation alone costs some €600 billion per annum across the whole EU.
In 2010, Mats Persson of the Open Europe think tank stated EU regulation has cost Britain £124 billion since 1998.
Independent studies have put the net cost of EU membership and its attendant 100,000 plus Directives and Regulations at between 4% and 10% of the UK’s GDP.
Global Britain Briefing Note 65 quotes studies – A Cost Too Far by Ian Milne and other studies
A Treasury report in 2005 had four categories of EU costs which altogether came to 28% of Britain’s GDP. Eliminating any possibility of any overlap between the Treasury’s categories, the think tank Global Britain conservatively estimated that the likely EU cost was around 7% of UK GDP or £98 billion at 2009 prices.
Early targets for deregulation in a free Britain would include scrapping the Working Time Directive (cost £17.8 billion up to July 2010), the Temporary Workers Directive (cost £245 million up to July 2010), Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations 2012 (£768 million over 15 years), REACH chemical Directive (estimated at between €2.3 billion and €5.2 billion over the 11 years that that it will take to register all the substances covered by REACH) and environmental emissions targets and the Large Combustion Plant Directive that threaten to turn the UK’s Lights off.
The BCC Burdens Barometer 2010 and Electronic Regulations Directive
and REACH source – Premier Farnell Report published in March 2009 – entitled ‘Step to Step Guide to the REACH regulations’
The UK currently has only 8.2% of voting power ‘say’ in the EU
QMV: 29 UK votes divided by 352 total number of votes x 100 equals 8.24%
and the Lisbon Treaty ensured the loss of Britain’s veto in many more policy areas. Under the Lisbon Treaty the UK has lost another 41 vetoes and Eurozone measures are trying to sideline the UK’s vetoes in addition on closer EU supervision of banking and deficits.
The Swiss have estimated that full EU membership would cost Switzerland net payments of some 3.4 billion Swiss Francs a year.
Swiss Confederation – Federal Department of Foreign Affairs – Bilateral Agreements Switzerland – EU report
Norway pays far more per head than Iceland, which only contributes 1% of its GDP. Overall, Norway pays just Krone 3 billion a year, equivalent to £330 million a year.
British Influence says £1.7 billion
On this basis, and allowing for the fact Norwegian GDP is nearly 3 times the UK’s: Norway has $99k per capita to $34k per capita in UK (GNI per capita: $98,860; $38,250) and the UK’s population is 12.5 times that of Norway’s . The UK has 63.7 million
vis-a-vis Norway’s 5.019 million
the UK would only pay at that high level some £1.5 billion a year.
In 2009, the Norwegian Mission to the EU estimated that Norway’s total financial contribution linked to their EEA (European Economic Area) agreement is some £3 billion per year, of which some £210 million are contributions related to the participation in various EU programmes.
House of Commons Research paper – ‘Leaving the EU’ – 13/42 – 1 July 2013
As reported by the Daily Mail (3rd July 2013), ‘European institutions’ such as the European Commission and European Court of Justice (ECJ) have imposed an additional 250 measures onto Britain in the last two years at a cost of £5 billion. The Daily Mail cites such measures as Environmental Permitting Regulations 2011 £80 million; Waste Regulations 2011 £81.3 million over 10 years; Motor Fuel and Merchant Shipping Regulations 2010 £423 million over 10 years; Cleaner Road Transport Vehicles Regulations 2011 £215 million over 24 years; Toys Safety Regulations 2011 £230 million over 10 years; Electricity and Gas Regulations 2011 £184.1 million over 21 years; Electronic Communications Order 2011 £133 million; Equality Act 2010 Regulations (insurance for female drivers) 2012 £923.2 million; Packaging Waste Regulations 2012 £249.6 million over 5 years; Renewable Transport Fuel Obligations Order 2011 £809 million over 18 years; Road Transport (Working Time) Regulations 2012 £806 million over 10 years; Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012 £191.5 million over 10 years; Council Regulation (residence permits for third-country nationals) £103 million; Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations 2012 £768 million over 15 years.
The forerunner of the EU, the Common Market, didn’t even come into existence until 1958, and then only with 6 nations, and yet there was no war between European countries from 1945 to 1956 (when the Hungarian Uprising took place).
Both of these are being undermined by the EU. The former German President Herzog wrote a few years ago that “the question has to be raised of whether Germany can still unreservedly be called a parliamentary democracy.”
This was owing to the number of German laws emanating from the EU – which he assessed at some 84%.
“I’m sure the Commission will become a government one day. I’m sure that the Council will become a second chamber one day. And I’m sure the European Parliament will take European responsibilities otherwise it won’t work in the long term. But today we must save the euro and create the basis properly. And we must give people a little bit of time so that they can come with us.”
Similar sentiments have been expressed by José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, and Wolfgang Schäuble (Germany’s Federal Minister of Finance).
This means that the peoples of Europe must suffer. That it is considered acceptable for unelected EU Commissioners to replace democratically elected Prime Ministers such as Papandreou in Greece (who called for a Referendum on austerity measures to save the Euro) and Berlusconi in Italy by unelected EU henchmen, ex-EU Commissioners (Lucas Papademos in Greece and Monti in Italy who failed dismally to be elected in the actual elections of February 2013) is alarming.
One of the major tests of the EU’s ability to keep the peace in Europe was the break-up of Yugoslavia. It was the EU’s interference that helped trigger a major civil war and its dithering that contributed to the deaths of some 100,000.
The Guardian reported 100,000 dead in Bosnian civil war in 2008 www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/22/warcrimes.balkans1
On the subject of the EU, the report found that 72% of US and two-thirds of Asian investors believe that a looser relationship with the EU would actually make the UK more attractive in terms of FDI.
Respected political economist, Ruth Lea, points to UKTI ‘Seven Reasons to Locate Your Business in the UK?’
This is borne out by the fact that Norway took in US$12.8 billion in FDI inflows in 2012.
This is now valued at 15% of GDP – collectively its combined economies are now greater than the EU and covers 1.8 billion people.
Moreover, London is the financial capital of the world and Britain has the sixth largest economy. Last but not least, the UK is in the top ten manufacturing nations of the world.
The new European External Action Service (EEAS) now has 3,400 staff (plus an additional Commission complement of 3,514 who are based in the delegations but aren’t on the EEAS payroll) in 141 offices and delegations around the world with a budget of €509m for 2013.
House of Lords report – March 2013 – http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201213/ldselect/ldeucom/147/147.pdf
and in December 2012 BBC reported on the 2013 budget – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20522201
Figures derived from the 2006-07 FCO Departmental Annual Report (which may not be strictly comparable) indicate that in 2006 there were approximately 16,200 staff, of which 6,190 were full-time equivalent UK-based staff, and approximately 10,000 were locally engaged overseas.
The FCO has not confirmed actual job losses but this would indicate that job losses must be considerable. BBC News reported in February 2011 that 400 Embassy posts were being axed.
Foreign Office support for the BBC’s World Service is being eliminated also. EU diplomats owe their allegiance to common EU interests and not British ones. Indeed EU diplomats are now claiming to have the right to speak for Britain on key issues such as security and defence – the EU Ambassador to the US, Joao Vale de Almedia, made such a claim in 2010.
Why We Should Leave: The Top Ten Freedoms from Leaving the EU
On transport, Britain could end EU moves to centralise control of transport within a Common European Transport Area and to force ‘superlorries’ onto UK roads (60 plus tonne trucks at 80 feet long).
and Freight on Rail site:
Britain has already contributed £30 billion to aid packages for Ireland.
In the EU, currently all EU citizens have the right to move to the UK regardless of skill needs. This has resulted in 157,000 EU citizens arriving every year.
But the reality is with the UK now receiving between 50% and 80% of its laws from the European Union, the ‘Mother of Parliaments’ at Westminster has been effectively sidelined and undermined, and there has been a major loss of democratic control from the British nation state and UK citizens to the unelected, remote and unaccountable European Union, an institution whose accounts have not been signed off for 18 years in a row by its own Court of Auditors.
Consumer prices have been driven up by EU membership, particularly energy bills through excessive environmental targets and the need to rebuild the UK National Grid and the majority of power stations, and by heavy subsidies to ineffective wind turbines. Above all, the costly EU emissions trading scheme costs families £117 per year.
On the other hand, the countries of the Commonwealth will go from strength to strength. Currently, the Commonwealth numbers nearly two billion people and includes thirteen of the world’s fastest growing economies. By 2015, the Indian middle class alone will number a staggering 267 million people.
Indeed, leading economist Willem Buiter of Citigroup predicts that India will supplant China to become the world’s biggest economy in around 2050.
In addition, there was a huge rise of EU nurses whose skills and ability to speak English are unknown thanks to EU rules banning proper competency checks on EU citizens.
In 2010, some 32,000 non-UK citizens with children in other European countries were involved in this scam which costs the British taxpayer millions of pounds.
Moreover, British restrictions on claims from EU immigrants have been lifted at the likely additional cost of £2.5 billion a year following demands from the European Commission and the threat of legal action.
EU citizens would also lose their automatic right to claim UK welfare payments after three months residency.
What We Would Have Instead: EEA Lite: A New Model for a New UIK/EU Relationship
These clauses allow restrictions on long-term residence permits for different EU nations (Bulgaria and Romania are very strictly restricted, the newer 8 EU nations restricted from April 2012 to a cap of 2,180 for 12 months on B permits granting foreign nationals residence status for 5 years, but with older 17 EU nations much less restricted with a cap of 53,700 for 12 months) once a certain worker limit is reached.
Reuters reported the reasoning was that, “Prosperous, non-EU Switzerland has seen the net influx of workers rise to up to 80,000 a year, contributing to a house price bubble and prompting criticism from right-wing parties.”
This shows what a helpful control lever the visa system provides, though the EU reaction was predictably hostile: Baroness Ashton claimed it was “a breach of the Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons as amended by the Protocol of 2004. The agreement does not allow for any differentiation between EU citizens.”
“The Eurozone’s biggest trading partner worldwide is the UK
The Eurozone’s biggest export market worldwide is the UK
The Eurozone’s biggest supplier worldwide is the UK
The Eurozone’s biggest trade surplus worldwide is with the UK”
Global Britain Briefing Note No 86 – 31st May 2013/Data from the May 2013 edition of the Monthly Bulletin of the European Central Bank (www.ecb.int) Monthly Bulletin, Table 7.2, Current & Capital Accounts, page S 63
Why Leaving is Easy: The Step by Step Guide to Leaving the EU
The actual process of withdrawal from the EU would be similar to that proposed in the 1983 Labour Party General Election manifesto,
How Leaving Can Free the UK from the EU Regulatory and Interventional Burden by subject area:
5.1 The EU Red Tape Burden in Summary
There are well over 150,000 pages of EU laws in the form of regulations and directives, to say nothing of ECJ directives and decisions, which have legal force in the UK.
In 2006, the then EU Commissioner for Enterprise and Industry, Gunter Verhuegen, estimated that the EU laws cost European business €600 billion a year in which it can be estimated that the UK share was £56 billion.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p315
In 2004, Peter Mandelson put the cost of EU red tape at 4% of EU GDP or €421 billion. The UK share of this massive figure was estimated at £49 billion.
Open Europe Report: Less Regulation: Four Ways to Cut EU Red Tape and EU in a Nutshell, p315
5.2 The Economy, Trade and the Tax Burden
According to the EU Commission’s own figures, the Single Market costs two and half times more than it benefits the member states,
Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley, p3
A 2009 book ‘The Great European Rip-Off’ by Matthew Elliott and David Craig estimated that the Single Market cost some £118 billion a year. That is equal to £1,968 for every man, woman and child in UK
Even the French acknowledge that EU over-regulation is damaging: according to the Conseil d’Analyse Economique – which reports to the French Prime Minister – over-regulation is a major factor in the EU’s decline compared with the Rest of the World.
The EU body of law (the ‘acquis communautaire’) now runs to 35 chapters and 150,000 pages;
More flexibility for the UK to sell to markets beyond the EU, where annual growth is far higher than the EU and where the UK mainly has trade surpluses. The UK actually enjoys its best trading relationships beyond the EU: in 2010, UK trade with the Rest of the World had a positive balance of £16 billion.
Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See p3
However, trade with the EU-27 has a deficit of £56 billion.
Trade Policy Unit, Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) – October 2013 http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See p3
Indeed, 92% of the UK’s total trading deficit in 2010 was with the other EU-26.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
Since the turn of the Millennium British exports to markets outside the EU have grown 37% faster than British exports to the EU;
The Bruges Group Report: The Single Market and British Withdrawal, Ian Milne, 2011, p7
The opportunity, as a leading exporting nation, to renew Britain’s direct trading ties with the Commonwealth, as countries such as India, Australia, Canada and Nigeria are seeing annual GDP growth rates that far outstrip the EU. The Commonwealth’s combined economies are now larger than the EU at over 15% world GDP
Daniel Hannan on his blog in June 2012 said Eurozone ‘about to overtake’ – http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/danielhannan/100163336/look-at-these-graphs-any-possible-argument-for-remaining-in-the-eu-has-been-blown-away/
House of Commons Library Report entitled UK – Commonwealth trade statistics, 6th December 2012 – Figures relate to 2011. Surplus in 2011 – £ 0.7 billion in goods/£10 billion in services
and with which the UK already enjoys a strong surplus. From 2001 to 2011, UK exports to the Commonwealth increased by 120%.
House of Commons Library Report: UK – Commonwealth trade statistics, 6th December 2012 – Figures relate to 2011. Surplus in 2011 -£ 0.7 billion in goods/£10 billion in services
Five Commonwealth members are now in the G20: the UK, India, Canada, Australia and South Africa.
Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP
In a 2013 Quarterly Trade Survey, the British Chamber of Commerce noted that exports to India are expected to grow by 18.5% in 2013 whilst EU exports are due to decline by an expected 0.6%;
In June 2013, the EU was urging the UK to abandon its remaining zero exemptions and reduced VAT on such essential items as children’s clothes and toys, heating oil and water bills (but not bottled water) in order to save £3 billion.
Under the terms of the VAT Directive there is no leeway for EU member states to provide potential tax competition or unfair subsidy, the EU demands of the VAT list that it be “strictly applied, with no room for manoeuvre or interpretation.” In 2005, it was found that €107 billion was lost to fraud,
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p241
The ability to protect the City of London’s financial services, the largest financial centre in the world and worth 12% of GDP and which generates £35 billion of net UK exports a year
Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP
from being severely damaged by EU legislation such as the Financial Transactions Tax by EU regulators who wish to “downsize the City of London, because they do not like our Anglo Saxon methods.”
from briefing to Author by top MEP and not subsequently denied when the EU source was challenged directly at a London meeting
The cost of the deeply unpopular REACH (Chemicals) Directive alone has been literally inestimable, with the range of figures absurdly running from $500 million to $150 billion.
The REACH Directive and its Impact on the European Chemical Industry: A Critical Review; INSEAD, 2008
The EU itself recognises that “high energy prices and costs hamper European competitiveness,” as a May 2013 ministerial meeting admitted.
EuActiv.com, 8 May 2013
Of the €308 billion which the EU spent on structural funds (between 2007 and 2013), the UK got back only €9.4 billion. Also only 4.8% of structural funds projects are based in the UK whilst Italy, on the other hand, has a third of such projects.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p235
The UK had a trading deficit with no less than nineteen of the other EU-26 member states in 2010.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
In contrast, the UK had in 2010 a £20 billion structural trading surplus with the US
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
and had healthy trading surpluses with Australia, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia. Only one – Luxembourg – is in the EU.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p476
The UK must build up its trading relationships with the Rest of the World as this offers the best prospects of growth. In 2010, Britain’s healthiest trading surpluses were with the US, Australia, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia and only one – Luxembourg – is in the EU.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p476
In January 2013, the Guardian reported that the ‘long-term decline in oil exports from the North Sea continued to expose the lack of overseas sales by manufacturing firms – while goods imports remained high’.
British Chamber of Commerce Burden Barometer attempts to estimate the actual costs of EU regulations across the board. In 2010, their report stated that the EU Working Time Regulation had alone cost the UK a staggering £17.8 billion since its introduction.
BCC Burdens Barometer – quoted in Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP
Consequently the London pension fund management dominates the European pension industry. The only London-based EU regulatory financial institution is the EBA.
The Commission estimates that 0.03% of the European labour force would lose their jobs as a result – which equates to 50,000 jobs, mostly in the City of London.
The capital loss to the UK – on assumptions which discount the loss aggressively (i.e. make it smaller than it otherwise would be) – might be almost £60 billion.”
In March 2013, EU Finance Ministers adopted a strict cap on Bankers’ Bonuses despite a UK fight back which only secured minor tweaks from the other member states. The UK has now had to resort to a legal case in the ECJ on the basis of this measure being illegal, despite claimed ‘Influence’.
The Financial Times, 25th September 2013
The think tank Global Vision points out that EU membership has imposed a massive opportunity cost: ‘too great a proportion of Britain’s energies are dedicated towards facilitating convergence with European neighbour economies, rather than concentrating upon the national interest by developing markets for British goods and services amongst the fastest growing areas of the world’.
A Binley and Lea report analysed the 2006 employment and statistical data of the then EU-25 and their findings claim that even greater jobs mismatch: that nearly six and a half million EU jobs are dependent on the EU trade with the UK whilst four and a half million UK jobs depend on EU exports. This suggests that one million jobs in Germany alone depend on trade with the UK whilst for France, it is 800,000 and in Spain 700,000.
Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See P9
The Guardian reported in April 2013 VAT has now taken £1.6 trillion from UK businesses and citizens since its introduction in 1973.
The Guardian,1st April 2013
‘A produces raw materials. It sells them to B and charges VAT on those. B manufactures (products from the) raw materials. It sells the product to C, with VAT on it, accounts for the VAT and reclaims the VAT charged by A. C distributes the product to D. C sells it in due course and charges VAT on the price, accounts to Customs for it, and reclaims the VAT charged by B. D is a retailer who sells the product to the wider public, and of course charges VAT upon it, accounts to Customs for it, and reclaims the VAT charged by B’.
Open Europe 2007 paper, The Truth Behind Tax Harmonisation
Open Europe found too that EU funding can take an age to be released and the EU largesse is scattered too widely instead of being targeted where it can do the most good. Moreover, the funds also favour larger organisations rather than SMEs as the funds compliance requirements impose huge costs on recipients.
Global Vision believes the Funds are counterproductive as the EU channels ‘taxes and duties from profitable businesses, but are then largely repaid as grants to unproven or unprofitable enterprises’ – such as aid to superconductor manufacturers just before the market collapsed in the 1990s.
Free of the EU, the UK would be better able to heed the British Chamber of Commerce’s call for a Business Bank which would be run on commercial lines and resemble the German Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau. The BCC argues that such a bank would ensure that Britain’s vital SMEs are properly financed and have the resources to grow and export.
5.3 The Cost to Democracy
Restoring UK control over UK laws to Westminster for 100% of its laws instead of the 47% or less now – for 53% of UK laws at least now come from the EU according to the House of Commons Library
www.parliament.uk/briefingpapers/commons/lib/research/rp2010/RP10-062.pdf – How much legislation comes from Europe? – Commons Library Research Paper
Currently the percentage of laws controlled by Westminster could be as little as 20% (based on German estimates saying 80% come from the EU).
However, the power to stop legislation requires 26% of the vote so the UK finds it impossible to block legislation which is harmful to UK interests such as the Agency Workers and the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directives, which the UK was overruled over.
Global Vision report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See P16
Leading UK commentator Simon Jenkins observed that such fanciful dreams surrounding the EU “make dangerous politics” and cloak the “meddling regulations and unaudited fraud of the ever burgeoning EU”. He issued a stark warning that “democratic deficits cannot last long before lapsing into dictatorship or mob rule. The history of Europe proves that people will not tolerate conquest either by bullet or bureaucrat.”
The Guardian, 26th April 2013
In April 2013, EU officials were stunned when Cyprus ordered that the punitive European Commission/ European Central Bank/IMF Troika Bailout Plan should actually be put to a vote of the nation’s Parliament, and was passed by only two votes.
The undermining of this member state democracy by the EU was so extreme that the normally compliant Socialist group in the European Parliament condemned the EU’s handling of the Cyprus crisis as ‘neo-colonial’.
In May 2012 former European Central Bank chief Jean-Claude Trichet stated that if a country’s leaders or parliament “cannot implement sound budgetary policies”, that country will be “taken into receivership” or as Trichet terms it ‘federation by exception’. Trichet continued: “It is a quantum leap of governance which I trust is necessary for the next step of European integration.”
“Are you really convinced that every time you take a vote, you are deciding something that must be decided here in this hall and not closer to the citizens, that are inside the individual European states?”
Claiming that the status quo, the present institutional form of the EU, is a forever uncriticizable dogma, is a mistake that has been – unfortunately – rapidly spreading, even though it is in direct contradiction not only with rational thinking but also with the whole two-thousand-year history of European civilization.
The same mistake applies to the a priori postulated, and therefore equally uncriticizable, assumption that there is only one possible and correct future of European integration, which is the “ever-closer Union”, i.e. advancement towards deeper and deeper political integration of the member countries.
The present decision-making system of the European Union is different from a classic parliamentary democracy, tested and proven by history. In a normal parliamentary system, part of the MPs support the government and part support the opposition. In the European Parliament, this arrangement has been missing. Here, only one single alternative is being promoted, and those who dare think about a different option are labelled as enemies of European integration.
There is also a great distance (not only in a geographical sense) between citizens and Union representatives, which is much greater than is the case inside the member countries. This distance is often described as the democratic deficit, the loss of democratic accountability, the decision-making of the unelected – but selected – ones, as bureaucratisation of decision-making etc. The proposals to change the current state of affairs – included in the rejected European Constitution or in the not much different Lisbon Treaty – would make this defect even worse.
Since there is no European demos – and no European nation – this defect cannot be solved by strengthening the role of the European Parliament, either. This would, on the contrary, make the problem worse and lead to an even greater alienation between the citizens of the European countries and Union institutions.”
VÁCLAV KLAUS, EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, BRUSSELS, 19 FEBRUARY 2009
The EU legal process is described as: ‘‘The Commission drafts proposals, national civil servants negotiate change at Council level, European Parliament puts in its own amendments based on party politics, Council and Parliament deal with those changes, the resulting document gets printed in the Official Journal and member states legislatures are expected to transpose laws into national laws, Commission ensures that EU law is both enacted and enforced.”
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p112
The total number of EU Commission staff is assessed at 24,000 with a total wage bill of €1.9 billion. These remote Brussels-based bureaucrats are, as the commentator Simon Jenkins notes, a ‘parody of the Tower of Babel’.
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham
Britain is represented by 73 MEPs out of a total of some 766 (including those following Croatia’s accession in July 2013). After the 2014 European Parliament elections, Britain will retain 73 MEPs but the chamber will be reduced to 751.
Professor Simon Evenett, Professor of Economics at the University of St. Galen in Switzerland, noted the democratic absurdity of the EU imposing budget cuts on member states whilst, at the same time, European Commission President Barroso “repeated his demand that the EU member states give the European Central Bank billions of Euros to invest in infrastructure.” Professor Evenett noted that “at best, this shifts the spending off national balance sheets; at worst, it is incoherent.”
The Observer, 9 June 2013
“Not really that it makes the slightest difference to the conclusions of a meeting what Ministers say at it. Everything is decided, horse traded off by officials at COREPER……….The Ministers arrive on the scene at the last minute, hot, tired, ill, or drunk (sometimes all of these together), read out their piece and depart.”
ALAN CLARK, DIARIES, PUBLISHED 1994
This was borne out by other studies which stated that the UK did not join the other large EU States (Germany, France, Italy and Spain) in less explicit contestation of the majority but showed the biggest gap in its voting behaviour from the other Council coalitions.
House of Commons Library report: Voting Behaviour in the EU Council, 23rd May 2013 – report states that the UK is the “furthest removed in its voting behaviour from the other coalitions in the Council”
In March 2012, Professor Chalmers own blog noted that in thirty five years of the history of EU ‘fundamental rights’ law, not one EU directive has ever been struck down for going against these rights or annulled for offending the subsidiarity principle.
After the Lisbon Treaty, European Parliament elections turn-out has declined in every subsequent election (from a European average of 63% in 1979 to 43% in 2009).
In the UK, it was even less at 35% in 2009.
such confirmations are rarely accompanied by any further discussion amongst the elected Ministers which is borne out in Alan Clark’s famous ministerial diary.
Diaries: Alan Clark, Phoenix, 1994 edition, p139
A major study found that: “The accretion of power by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is arguably the clearest manifestation of the transfer of sovereignty from nation states to a supranational institution, not only in the European Union (EU) but also in modern international politics more generally. The ECJ is more similar to the U.S. Supreme Court than to the International Court of Justice.”
The European Court of Justice, National Governments, and Legal Integration in the European Union, 1998, Geoffrey Garrett, R. Daniel Kelemen and Heiner Schulz
The EU has regularly jettisoned democracy to prop up the Eurozone: In 2011 the Huffington Post reported that the then EU leaders (Angela Merkel and Nicolas Sarkozy) forced the Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou to drop his November promise of a Referendum over the EU’s bailout plan that required deep spending cuts. Prime Minister Papandreou was swiftly replaced thereafter in November 2011 by Lucas Papademos, termed an ‘unelected technocrat’, and in Italy, Silvio Berlusconi was replaced by another unelected technocratic leader – Mario Monti.
Such direct appointment of unelected regional provincial governors, both with EU Commission backgrounds, uncannily smacks of the appointment of ‘Gauleiters’ to occupied territories in the German Reich.
Huffington Post, 14th December 2011
In February 2010, Greece was stripped of its vote at an EU meeting which the Huffington Post described as marking a “constitutional watershed and represents a crushing loss of sovereignty”. It showed that the EU was prepared to suspend the rights of a democratically elected member state Government as a punishment for not complying with the EU’s austerity demands.
In April 2013, a House of Lords report found that the European Union is being defrauded of more than £4billion a year – 12 times official estimates. In its latest budget report, the European Commission said that £348million a year was going missing, but the Lords’ EU sub-committee put the real size of EU budget losses annually at around £4.3 billion. The report was entitled ‘The Fight Against Fraud On The EU’s Finances’ and was published by the Lords’ Justice, Institutions and Consumer Protection EU Sub-Committee. It also said the areas most susceptible to fraud were the EU’s cohesion fund and agriculture.
In April 2013, the Hungarian Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, described the European Parliament in a radio interview as a place where “liberal, left wing and Green MEPs bellow at each other with bulging veins” and as an institution where facts are “secondary”. He said that “Hungarians think debate is based on a sober, matter-of-fact, the-other-person-may-be-right logic, but the European Parliament is not a European place.”
5.4 Foreign Affairs
Redirecting the one-fifth of the UK Government’s Development Aid money allocated through the Department for International Development (DFID), around £1.2 billion, which is spent annually by the EU Commission under an EU rubric
On an operational level, the Commission and the UN have signed a ‘Financial and Administrative Framework Agreement’,
A new development from the EU is Missions for Growth. These are in essence a series of EU trade missions that ‘involve political and business meetings tackling areas of mutual interest in the fields of enterprise and industry policies’. Businesses are brought on board via their EU lobbyists, with local embassies included almost as an afterthought. It is the Commission and the EAS who are locally sold as the intermediary for such Continent-wide dealings.
6011/1/13 Missions for Growth – Information from the Commission
2005 “It is plain from the DG External Relations website that the outcome of the referendums in 2005 in the Netherlands and France does not seem to have given the Commission pause for thought.”
Retrospective from House of Commons EU Select Committee, 27th Report
The estimated bill running a distinct EU Common Defence Policy has been calculated at currently running at around €932 million per annum (£777 million), which is in addition to direct national military expenditure.
See the TPA’s paper on EU Defence, which includes a costing and is a useful introduction to this area
5.6 Justice and Home Affairs, including Human Rights
“Combating crime involves strengthening dialogue and action between the criminal justice authorities of EU countries. For a long time, the EU has tried to build the European criminal justice area with one hand tied behind its back: the unanimity rule, which required agreement of all EU governments for decision-making, often led to a ‘lowest common denominator’ approach; the Commission did not have enforcement powers; and parliaments and courts had little to say.
Progress in this field has therefore been limited, and the focus has been more on security issues. With the Lisbon Treaty Choose translations of the previous link in force, a rebalancing between security and justice will finally be possible.”
THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2013
The EU was also responsible for introducing a Cookie Directive, amending the Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive 2003. A data consultancy, Qubit, estimated that the worst case scenario would be an industry bill of £10 billion.
The EU Cyber Security Directive threatens to add forced compliance costs on businesses since it introduces a legal requirement for IT security. This risks generating industry minimum standards, compliance-approved training and a new compliance industry. It also creates legal responsibilities for businesses responding to breaches. This might be affordable by big companies but could cripple SMEs.
Computer Weekly, 19 February 2013
EU gender equality laws have led one pensions firm to calculate that the impact of the 2012 EU Gender Directive has meant a total reduction in a man’s annuity payments of £10,000, since gender-specific annuities could no longer be offered (and since women live longer).
An expert legal group was set up to this aim and drafted a document, which has now received a level of infamy, called Corpus Juris.
The EU Investigation Order Directive (and related European Arrest Warrant Council Framework Decision) allows EU member states to order police and criminal investigations within other EU member states regardless of whether a certain act is a crime in that member state.
Statewatch – http://www.statewatch.org/Targeted-issues/EIO/eio-observatory.htm – Note; It should be noted that plans are still in the draft stage
Britain has lost a staggering 202 European human rights cases involving murderers, terrorists, paedophiles and rapists, it emerged on the 7th October 2013. Judges for the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg handed the criminals taxpayer-funded payouts of £4.4million – an average of £22,000 a head.
In September 2013, EU Justice Commissioner, Viviane Reding, said the EU should have powers to impose human rights rulings. Her masterplan includes a vision of the European Commission as a ‘quasi-judicial authority’ alongside an EU ‘justice minister’ and powers for Europe’s courts to impose rulings, overriding national governments.
Chris Grayling MP, the Justice Secretary, told a Commons select committee hearing in October 2013 that he is fighting a concerted attempt by the Commission in Brussels to “Europeanise” the UK’s legal and justice system. The European Commission has reactivated the single judicial area for the Union known as the Corpus Juris project. Under this scheme, Europe’s legal systems would be harmonised, with a European Public Prosecutor appointed initially to oversee cases of fraud against the EU.
5 .7 Immigration and Border Controls
Reacting to an unprecedented rise in the UK population from 2002 to 2012 of 5 million thanks largely to the open door policies of the Labour Government, equivalent to more than the entire population of Ireland (4.15 million) moving to the UK. MigrationWatch states that the latest statistical projections indicate that immigration will account for two-thirds of our population increase in the next 15 years from 2012.
Andrew Neather was a former speechwriter to Tony Blair’s Government. Writing in the London Evening Standard on the 23rd October 2009, he exposed the shocking truth behind the Labour Party’s support for mass immigration
…massively dwarfing the ‘gerrymandering’ of London Borough housing for votes under Dame Shirley Porter back in the 1980s.
Acknowledging that since 1997, three-quarters of new jobs created in the UK economy as an EU member have been taken by immigrant workers, including EU immigrant workers;
which also includes data on the economic benefits question
The UK has (on 2008 figures) around 920,000 nationals living in other EU countries, which make up 3% of the total number of foreigners living in EU countries.
But 39% of these are in one country alone – Spain. A large proportion of these are retired; a significant proportion of the remainder in the country are employed to cater for 13 million British holidaymakers bringing in much-needed tourist currency;
Acting on the unacceptable reality that on the anniversary of Gordon Brown’s party conference speech promising these ‘British jobs for British workers’ (mentioned above) the number of British nationals in work had fallen by 46,000 whilst the number of foreign nationals in jobs had risen by 175,000,
Being able to properly and fully deport EU and foreign criminals, and to immediately return to European states over 4,441 European criminals in British jails. Many of these come from Eastern European member states and cannot presently be deported under EU rules and human rights legislation. Over the past two years, almost 16,000 foreign national prisoners marked for deportation stayed in jail beyond their sentences which clearly reveals the scale of the problem;
In a speech in 2013, Lord Mandelson allegedly admitted that New Labour deliberately encouraged a mass influx of foreign workers, in order to generate social change.
The Daily Mail, 14 May 2013
This was backed up by Tony Blair’s adviser, Andrew Neather, (see quote below) though he subsequently backtracked on his statement.
The free movement of labour under EU law meant that British jobs could not be guaranteed for British workers as that would be discriminatory against other nations, and potentially open to legal challenge as racist. It came however only a few weeks after figures indicated that half of the jobs created under Labour had gone to foreign workers.
BBC, 16 November 2007
According to the Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford, in 2004 there were 5.2 million foreign-born nationals in the UK, and 2.9 million non-British citizens. By 2011, there were 7.5 million foreign-born, and 4.8 million non-British citizens: an increase of 2.3 million foreign born and 1.9 million non-British citizens – 4.2 million together in 7 years.
See for instance:
and the associated ONS data
Other figures from the EU’s Eurostat and the UK, show that in 2011 there were 48.9 million foreign residents in the EU (of which 33.3 million had not been naturalised).
EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
The number of people who were unemployed in the UK at the end of 2011 stood at 2.7 million and had in fact risen from a low in 2004. Youth unemployment in the 16-24 age range, which faced the stiffest competition from the Eastern European migrants, had also now passed the one million figure in 2011 having risen by 400,000 since the EU A8 accession.
I in 4 babies born in the UK in 2012 were born to foreign born mothers.
The UK is the fourth most generous in providing taxpayer support for low paid workers in the EU-15 (i.e. pre-2004 European Union/Western Europe bar Malta and Cyprus), behind the smaller economies of Denmark, Luxembourg and Ireland, and with lower controls. Income-based Job Seekers’ Allowance wasn’t based on any National Insurance contributions, and has no minimum contribution time, so transferrable benefits are easier to claim in the UK.
While the number of UK nationals in work remained constant over the long term compared with the 2001 figures – and that includes UK nationals naturalised over the period – there have by contrast been one and a third million new jobs created.
Around 27,000 EU nationals are arrested annually in the UK, as counted by UK police forces notifying their counterparts abroad. The numbers doubled over two years to 2011, and trebled over four. However, only around 1,000 have been deported
The Daily Telegraph, 8 September 2011; The Daily Mail, 11 April 2011
The programme entitled ‘Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows’ was set at €5,866 million (€5.9 billion) over 2007-2013; €1,820 million (€1.8 billion) goes to the External Borders Fund. That does not include €285 million for Frontex, €900 million to set up Continental information networks, and €62 million for the European Migration Observatory.
The expat figure in the EU contrasts with the total of 5.5 million UK nationals who live abroad across the whole world, with 1.3 million in Australia and a similar amount in North America. So five-sixths of UK nationals living abroad manage to do this in countries that are not covered by EU treaties.
A European Commission study, published on 13th October 2013, revealed that in 2012 there were 611,779 economically ‘non-active’ EU migrants living in Britain – up from 431,687 six years ago. This number is equivalent to a city the size of Glasgow. The annual cost to the NHS of treating ‘non-active’ migrants is estimated at £1.5 billion.
A poll by Survation for Sky News on October 4th 2013 revealed that more than two-thirds of Britons believe the UK population is too large and want the Government to do more to cut immigration. Forty per cent thought large-scale immigration had created a drain on the welfare state. Forecasters suggest the UK population will rise from 62 million in 2010 to 73 million by 2035, with about two-thirds of the increase likely to come from immigration.
Some 70 million passengers a year – one in three of the total – are arriving without undergoing background checks because of European Union data protection rules a report from the Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration, John Vine, has found. The £1.2 billion ‘electronic borders’ system supposed to stop terrorists, foreign criminals and illegal immigrants has descended into a shambles. The European Commission blew the most gaping hole in the system by ruling that it would breach free movement rules to force EU citizens to hand their data over in advance. As a result, passengers arriving on flights from Europe can refuse to undergo advance screening.
Ending the subjugation of UK Welfare law to EU control. In the 1998 Kohll and Decker cases, the ECJ established the supremacy of EU law over EU member states’ national insurance laws. This is because the Court ruled that member states should comply with EU law when determining the organisation of their Social Security systems.
The Territorial Politics of Welfare’ by Nicola McEwen and Luis Moreno, published by Taylor and Francis e-Library 2008 and in 2005 by the Taylor and Francis imprint Routledge
Iain Duncan Smith has rightly challenged the EU over benefits rules impacting on the UK when he found that EU migrants have an automatic right to a number of British benefits without any prior contributions. Consequently, the Work and Pensions Secretary plans to introduce restrictions which will stop such migrants receiving UK welfare payments until they have paid into the welfare state for up to a year. With Romanians and Bulgarians poised to receive full freedom of movement rights in the EU at the beginning of 2014, benefits tourism could cost the UK more than £150million.
Stopping the EU turning the UK into a ‘Playground’ for EU benefit seekers. No other document sums up the contempt that the EU bureaucracy has for the current travails of the member states and their peoples more than an EU postcard entitled: ‘Social Security Coordination: Europe is Your Playground’ This quite clearly shows that the EU is promoting benefit tourism;
Social Security Co-ordination: work anywhere in Europe report – Can be downloaded from this page –http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=850&langId=en
Escaping an EU Pension Liability and Demographic Timebomb, that the UK is likely to have to contribute to most – as the UK has far greater private pension provision. As a member of the EU, Britain will be liable for the other EU nations’ trillion Euro ‘black hole’ of unfunded state pensions as workers number decline but retirees grow ever more numerous. Germany alone has a pension obligation of €7.6 trillion.
Savings on UK Welfare payments: Welfare already takes up to a third of all UK Government spending with the Department of Welfare and Pensions paying out £159 billion on benefits including the State Pension – which is only slightly more than the entire economy of say Greece (which had a GDP of $249 billion in 2012).
CIA Fact Book:
This right of free movement was first established by a Directive of the EU (2011/98/EU) which established a common set of rights for third country workers legally residing in a member state. Under the vague term ‘modernised co-operation’, which was introduced in May 2010, the right to benefits was extended to the unemployed and the ‘no longer working’.
In 2010, a Dutch study noted sombrely that EU “economic integration undoubtedly makes it more difficult for the member states to… insist on maintaining an extensive array of benefits paid by a generous social state.”
The EU As Lawmaker: The Impact of EU Directives On National Regulation In The Netherlands By Mark Bovens and Kutsal Yesilkagit – Dated 2010
The Social Chapter is part of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam and covers social rights in EU law. Rejected by the Conservative Government of 1979-97, the Chapter was finally extended to the UK by Tony Blair during the Labour Government of 1997-2010.
That failure hasn’t daunted the EU. Under the banner of the ‘European platform against poverty’, the EU has set itself the laudable target of reducing poverty by at least 20 million by 2020,
EU migrants can easily establish their right to British benefits. MigrationWatch UK found that all EU citizens have the initial right to reside in the UK for three months but can extend this, by either working, having the family join them, studying or even by being a job seeker. They can show this continuing residence by simply registering with a GP or registering their children with the local authority who must then place them in a local school.
The lobby organisation MigrationWatch UK points out that once an EU national has been granted ‘habitual residence’ status in the UK, he or she becomes eligible for the entire UK benefit system on the same terms as a UK national and can claim the Working Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, contribution- based Job Seekers’ Allowance, Housing Benefit and Council Tax Benefit (or their new equivalents).
The cost of EU migrant welfare payments will rise significantly with the arrival of a wave of Romanian and Bulgarian immigrants from January 2014. MigrationWatch UK’s best guess estimate of these new Eastern European immigrants is between 30,000 to 70,000 people a year, averaging at 50,000 a year. This is the population of a city like Carlisle or Inverness arriving in the UK every year with its consequent burden on the NHS, housing and the welfare state.
This figure of Romanian migrants could be considerably higher if the nearly one million Romanians in Spain should transfer to Britain as one-third of them are unemployed and their benefits expire after one year.
Citizens of European states outside the EU28, such as the Swiss and Norwegians, have the same right to live in the EU as the British. However, EU migrants to Switzerland must be employed, self-employed or have a private source of income under the terms of the Swiss bilateral agreement with the EU (and vice versa).
p10/Switzerland-EU Bilateral Agreements Document pdf
The Daily Mail reported in 2012 that the Commission was trying to sneak the Turkey welfare deal through a part of the Lisbon Treaty which is usually reserved to govern the relationship between member states rather than for those clauses that give member states the right to object to the terms of proposed EU agreements with non-EU countries.
In 2008, the Guardian reported a Eurostat study that showed by 2060, almost one in three Europeans will be of pensionable age if the age of 65 remains the threshold.
Currently, across the EU28 countries, there are four people of working age for every person over 65, but by 2060 that ratio will be two working people for every retired person.
14 of the EU’s member countries are projected to have smaller populations by 2060, with Germany losing nearly twelve million.
The UK also pays far more into funded pension schemes than other countries of the EU. The Actuaries state that “approximately 60% of pension provision in the UK is unfunded. The remainder of UK pension provision is funded, either through occupational pension schemes or personal pensions. The level of funding in the UK is much higher than that in most other EU countries, where the majority of pension provision is on a ‘pay- as-you-go basis’.
Britain will become Europe’s (bar Russia) biggest country in terms of population by the 2060 marker with some 77 million people.[193
Britain’s pension burden is already considerable, with the Office for National Statistics (ONS) finding that the UK’s own unfunded liability was £33,000 for every UK household,
and UK Gov source:
or £5 trillion pounds. £2.1 trillion of that sum will be borne by the pension funds and private sector employers.
It should be noted at this point that unrestricted immigration is not the answer. In November 2004, the UN World Economic and Social Survey noted that ‘Incoming migration to Europe would have to expand at virtually impossible rates to offset declining support ratios – that is workers per retiree’.
Migration Watch PR – Economic 1.24 ‘Immigration and Pensions’
For the UK to keep the workers/retirees ratio at present levels would require an unsustainable 1.5 million immigrants per year before 2051 and up to five million per year for the rest of the century. Under such circumstances, the UK population would be 119 million by 2051 and 303 million by the end of the century.
Migration Watch Economic 1.24 ‘Immigration and Pensions’ report
The new EU rules under Solvency II will equip the insurance industry with the necessary financial protection to deal with ‘a once-only 200 years’ catastrophe and cost the UK pensions industry some £400 billion pounds (or €498 billion) according to the UK pensions Minister, Steve Webb, when he referred to the matter in late 2012.
5.9 Agriculture and Fishing
The current CAP scheme is not well targeted. For example, in the UK, the top five CAP recipients from available data over 1999-2009 were revealed to be: Tate and Lyle Europe (€828 million), Nestlé UK Ltd (€197 million), Meadow Foods Ltd (€129 million), Czarnikow Group Ltd (€129 million) and Philpot Dairy Products Ltd (€88 million). By contrast, the average income of a hill farmer in England in 2007 (before family labour was included) was £10,786.
CAP also continues to variously fund organisations with a tenuous link to agriculture, such as chemical companies, prisons, laboratories, hotels, mines and quarries, industrial museums, telecoms businesses, schools, golf courses, inner city councils, water companies, horse breeders, caravan sites, sports clubs, and airports;
Revitalising and restoring many fishing communities and fishing jobs left devastated by joining the EU’s CAP, just as fishermen in Norway and Iceland continue to prosper: In 1970, there were 21,443 UK fishermen employed full or part time in the fishing fleet. Despite changes to international law extending national waters (which instead fell under CFP management and joint access rights), by 2006 there were only 12,934 UK nationals so employed – a drop of 40% – with a quarter of the workforce aged over 55. There are more than 4 times more fishing-related jobs on land such as fish processing;
Seafish: The economic impacts of the UK sea fishing and fish processing sectors: An input-output analysis’report, published by Seafish Economics and Fraser of Allander Institute at Strathclyde University
UK is a net contributory to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and as such currently gets a bad deal from the agricultural terms of its association with the EU, losing £1 billion a year in net CAP contributions from 2007-13.
Open Europe – More for Less: Making the EU’s farm policy work for growth and the environment, February 2012
The UK could establish its own farming support scheme over time out of the EU but keep single farm payments the same until a better scheme is introduced. Norway actually provides more subsidies for its farmers that the EU.
Personal briefing by Hilde Gjengedal, senior advisor for the Norwegian Farmers Union
Specific examples of highly costly CAP damage to the UK include – BSE Crisis: British Ministers concluded that EU policy was being pushed by self-interest by some farming ministers from other EU nations who were eager to step into market gaps, and by a focus on public fears rather than actual science – real friends in the UK’s hour of need! The cull and ban involved the slaughter of 3.3 million cattle at one estimated cost of £3.7 billion to the UK taxpayer and £11 billion to the UK industry.
See for example BSE Crisis and Food Safety Regulation: A Comparison of the UK and Germany, Beck/Kewell/Asenova
Fallen stock: As a result of Animal Waste Directive, farmers have to bring in waste disposal of fallen livestock rather than following the old practice of just burying it locally. DEFRA estimated the cost impact on English farmers to run annually at around £14 million, and the Scottish Government their bill £11.6 million. This seems designed to defy common sense.
for links to the various Government costings of these directives
Tagging: EC Regulations such as 2004/21/EC establishing a system for the identification of sheep and goats through double tagging, was set up to shift the paperwork away from transport logs. The 42 page Regulatory Impact Assessment by MAFF suggested end running costs in the order of £1.8 million for a scheme intended to simplify and save money.
Tagging burdens are such that DEFRA in 2011 won a three year delay in introducing new rules for individually tagging sheep, saving the industry potentially as much as £11.5 million over that period.
Pesticides Directives: Regulating the use of pesticides was estimated to have cost Britain £107 million by July 2010.
The British Chamber of Commerce Burdens Barometer put the cost of the ‘The Pesticides (Maximum Residue Levels in Crops, Food and Feeding Stuffs (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2000 – at 107million total by July 2010. (Quoted in Binley and Lea p47)
One academic report estimated the impact of not introducing GM (Genetically Modified) crops into EU fields is losing farmers approaching €1 billion annually.
Some of these crops are not grown in the UK, but others such as sugar beet, are grown here. Other studies such as that by Reading University put the cost at between €443 million and €929 million – whilst the Swedish Government’s worst case scenario was €2.25 billion.
An ActionAid report in 2011 looked at the case study of Bangladesh. It found that despite Bangladesh being a cheap milk producer, EU powdered milk imports undercut the local market and hamstrung the local dairy industry, by introducing competition that was subsidised at source and in its marketing
CAFOD (the Catholic Agency for Overseas Development) has previously estimated that without the CAP, the EU would be able to retarget around £400 million of its development aid away from compensating subsistence farmers. More recently, in 2011, A UN Special Rapporteur called the CAP “a 50 billion Euro contradiction of the EU’s commitment to help put developing world agriculture back on its feet.”
By 1990, there were an estimated one million tons of herring in the North Sea. Five years later there was an estimated 24,000 tons. That same year, in 1995, it was estimated that EU boats had discarded 27 million tons of fish – equivalent to China’s entire consumption over a year and a half.
EU source cited by TEAM Working Paper on fisheries, 2002, authored by Dr Richard North
5.10 Small Business, Employment and Industry Regulations
The EU has introduced well over 150,000 pages of laws in the EU acquis communautaire so the following points add up to a fraction of the costs that the EU has imposed on the UK through the expansion of its legislative power.
Repealing the Data Protection Act (EU) 1998, which has cost the UK some £8 billion
Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP. p23
Substantially amend the Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) Directive, that has cost industry (and the consumer) some £407million. One report from 2012 indicated that businesses were being charged £40-50 million more than the process cost for recycling such waste thanks to the increased world value of the metals being retrieved.
Scrap excessive transport regulations that hit small business especially, such as the Fuel Quality Directive, which has cost some £653 million, whilst a directive which regulates emissions from non-road mobile machinery has cost £670 million.
The UK Government defines Non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) as any mobile machine, item of transportable industrial equipment, or vehicle – with or without bodywork – that is: not intended for carrying passengers or goods on the road and installed with a combustion engine – either an internal spark ignition (SI) petrol engine, or a compression ignition diesel engine. Examples are generators, bulldozers, construction machinery fork lifts and mobile cranes – http://www.dft.gov.uk/vca/enforcement/non-road-mobile-mach.asp
In a 2008 Red Tape Report, the IOD noted that “The difference between UK case law and most EU Napoleonic law (broad principles) makes for an uneven playing field – Swedes get two sides of A4 we Brits get sixty pages.”
IOD Report – In their own words – red tape case studies from IoD members, 2008
The impact of this extra red tape is summed up the IOD Red Tape Case Studies Report which states that the impact comes in the form of: “cost, reluctance to employ new staff and the “massive diversion of scarce management time……(are) turning entrepreneurs into administrators.”
IOD Report – In their own words – red tape case studies from IoD members, 2008
[Report from European Commission – Public Consultation: “Which are the Top10 most burdensome EU legislative acts for SMEs?” held by the European Commission from 28.09.2012 to 21.12.2012.]
Professor Tim Congdon, a former Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee member, writes that leaked documents show that the cost of meeting EU targets could be “between £5 billion and £11 billion a year. Indeed, according to the documents, the long-term goal of 20% of total energy being from renewables would cost £22 billion”.
Since the start of this Parliament in May 2010, a total of 3,589 regulations and directives affecting UK businesses have been handed down from Brussels. Business for Britain which conducted the research said the avalanche of directives is strangling UK firms and making it harder to compete with corporations in the US and in emerging markets in the Far East and South America. It would take a small business owner, working an average eight hours a day and reading at an average speed of 300 words a minute, 92 days to read all the 13,321,530 words contained in all the EU red tape introduced since May 2010.
5.11 Energy and Environment
Jettisoning the Large Combustion Plant Directive before the UK National Grid fails and the Lights go off in Britain. This luddite Directive will cost £1.7 billion and could lead to the closure of a third of the nation’s energy plants by 2020, making the Grid highly vulnerable to power outages.
The Daily Telegraph, 24th February 2010
Ending the system of Landfill fines which the Local Government Association estimates could push up council tax bills by as much as £50, with a total national cost of £1.1 billion a year – equivalent to more than 5% of council tax receipts for 2012-13 £22.8 billion.
UK Government local government official statistics
Stopping a trend to ever higher and more uncompetitive EU Energy prices. These prices, excluding taxes, were roughly on a par between the EU, USA and Japan in 2005. But by 2013, they were 20% higher in the EU than Japan, and 37% higher than in the USA.
The Financial Times, 22nd May 2013
An opportunity to stop, review and reassess the case for and against wind turbines, especially on land, and to have a moratorium on wind turbines until that review is complete. It is not widely known that landowners receive hundreds of thousands of pounds in land rent
It is not widely known that landowners receive hundreds of thousands of pounds in land rent for every wind turbine, regardless of their output. Electricity bills will rise in 2013/14, with £38 of the average bill going on Renewables, up to £58 by 2016/17. A wind turbine might generate power worth £150,000 per year, but in doing so it attracts subsidies worth £250,000. The estimated subsidy for wind farms has been calculated to run to £130 billion by 2030 in the UK.
Why is Wind Power So Expensive? An Economic Analysis; Professor Gordon Hughes, GWPF, 2012
Stopping EU interference in UK Tax decisions benefiting the Environment: Attempts by the UK Chancellor to reduce VAT rates on energy-saving materials and installation have paradoxically led to the EU Commission taking the UK to court. The Treasury had hoped to stimulate draught stripping, insulation, solar panels, wind and water turbines, ground and air source heat pumps, micro combined heat and power units, and wood-fuelled boilers by cutting tax rates.
SolarPowerPortal, 23 February 2013
Regarding the EU’s Water Framework Directive: the UK Government’s (291- page) compliance cost document from 2007 appears to suggest compliance costs of £5.5 billion for this Directive, including £12 million in administrative costs for monitoring the system, against benefits figures of between £1.7 billion and £3.8 billion – a massive negative cost.
Draft partial regulatory impact assessment of environmental quality standards for implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the UK, DEFRA
The EU’s Drinking Water Directive’s implementation costs were estimated at between £2.3 billion (OFWAT) and £3.1 billion (suppliers) over the ten-year implementation period, excluding possible higher running costs.
The EU’s Bathing Water Directive was estimated in a DEFRA-funded paper to cost in England and Wales between £2.5 billion and £3.9 billion over 25 years as opposed to just £776 million in benefits.
Bathing Water Directive Revisions: What are the Benefits to England and Wales? A Stated Preference Study; Susana Mourato, Stavros Georgiou Ece Ozdemiroglu, Jodi Newcombe and Alexandra Howarth, CSERGE Working Paper ECM 03-12
The situation has become so critical that the Telegraph reports that ‘energy-intensive industries are having to install their own generators, or are looking to leave Germany altogether.’ Moreover, German energy firms are building enough coal and gas power stations to supply over a third of Germany’s power needs. It makes a mockery of the EU’s renewal energy plans which might look good on paper, but in reality, it is a pipe dream of wishful thinking.
The EU’s Clean Air for Europe Strategy was costed at €7.1 billion. It is certainly notable that the policy was delayed owing to opposition from within the EU’s College of Commissioners itself – a rare event. Even they argued that the approach was economically burdensome.
See for instance EurActiv, 22 July 2005
Whilst the aim of recycling is laudable, the means of aggressive fining and unrealistic targets is rigid, expensive and undemocratic. This Landfill Directive also swiftly closed 812 of the UK’s 2,000 landfills.
and possibly more, as 979 sites stopped before the Directive came into effect
Since 2005, 32 local authority infrastructure projects had been part-financed to shift biodegradable waste from landfill: the cost of these grants has amounted to £4 billion.
11th January 2012, c364W
The EU Environmental Noise Directive requires member states to create strategic noise maps and to come up with noise action plans. Directive 2002/49/EC has been transposed into English law through the Environmental Noise (England) Regulations 2006, as amended. The Government Impact Assessment estimated that the initial cost could come to £106 million with an annual cost of £0.1 million.
http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/noise-action-plan/index.htm – Dated 19th June 2009
A £300 million EU fine has been threatening London regarding airborne particle levels since 2011
The Guardian, 11th March 2011
This is despite London in May 2013 being classified as “very good” in an air quality index supported by the Commission.
With the advent of noise mapping and the ten-year review of the 2002 Environmental Noise Directive, the Commission is again talking up a claimed €40 billion social cost from vehicular and rail noise across the EU.
COM (2001) 0321
Batteries and accumulators have been covered by no less than eight items of EU law since 2006. As a German recycling magazine put it, they made battery manufacturers out of car makers and car sellers could be classified as having made the battery, even if no plant existed in that country.
Regarding the Waste Incineration Directive: the incineration industry at the time objected to compliance costs estimated at up to £90 million, set at an emission level ten times higher than one set in 1996 that had forced 30 plants to close, and regulating 1/60th of the emissions the steel industry in comparison was generating.
EU rules on reclaiming CFCs from refrigerators infamously created a fridge mountain. As the UK only had one-tenth of the recycling capability required to process used appliances, a large backlog swiftly appeared, requiring costly storage or export. The estimated UK cost was put at £40 million, despite warnings from both retailers and the recycling industry.
BBC, 20 June 2002
Norwegian researchers at SINTEF for instance were able to define four myths prevalent in the Climate Change debate: the concept of a lost Eden, the idea of a looming apocalypse, a hubris in anticipating a man-made response, and the moral obligation to act.
Consensus and Controversy: The Debate on Man Made Global Warming; Emil A.Røyrvik, 2012
Carbon Trading: The EU Carbon Trading Scheme (EU ETS) trades in carbon permits meant the UK was buying up currently vacant permits from the third world in order to keep currently occupied permits going, or in other words it meant, for example, that £60 million was paid over to foreign governments for carbon permits just to keep the UK Civil Service’s lights on.
The Daily Telegraph, 20th February 2010
As the 2008 economic crisis hit, Carbon Trading prices collapsed by 80%. Backloading of permits to delay sales until there was a market for them is not allowed under the system, leading to a projected surplus of 2 billion permits by 2020.
Bloomberg, 21st January 2013
British furniture makers are already warning that energy subsidies (as power stations burn wood imported from North America) will raise raw material prices so high it will drive them out of business. The lessons learnt from using rape seed oil as a fuel and the impact that had on agricultural prices were again missed by civil servants.
The Economist, 6 April 2013
Recent estimates suggest global proven conventional oil reserves are about 1.35 trillion barrels; global proven reserves of conventional gas are estimated at 6,600 trillion cubic feet; and over 861 billion tons of proven coal reserves sited worldwide.
The Abundance of Fossil Fuels: Why We Will Not Run Out of Fossil Fuels; Philipp Mueller, GPWF
Shale gas is cheap, comparatively very clean (these things are relative), does not need to be shipped from another Continent to the UK, and increasingly appears to be abundant and accessible. It is far more efficient and cost-effective than renewables in cutting carbon emissions. Shale gas provides a useful stop-gap pending the development of cost-effective solar and nuclear technologies over the next decades.
See in particular The Shale Gas Shock, Lord Ridley, GPWF, 2011
The EU now influences a large number of leading NGO and environmental groups through its financial support. In 2014, the allocated amount for such support was €9 million.
This corrupts the decision-making system in that these groups provide views on EU environmental legislation and are cheerleaders for it. For example, Friends of the Earth Europe received €733,162 in 2012 alone.
The Department of Energy and Climate Change’s own figures suggest green taxes already add £132.20 a year to the average fuel bill. This figure is set to rise to £270.30 by 2020 as the drive for green energy is stepped up. The Department of Energy and Climate Change admits that electricity prices are 15 per cent higher because of green levies and gas prices are 5 per cent higher.
Opting out of massive EU transport spending which does little to benefit Britain and its own major transport challenges. On the EU website, it confidently asserts “the cost of EU infrastructure development to match the demand for transport has been estimated at over €1.5 trillion for 2010-2030”.
Herald Ruijters, Head of Unit for Trans European Network, DG Mobility and Transport – Argued in Cross Border Forum in Antwerp in November 2012 that €1.5 trillion of investment needs by 2030 – http://www.europarl.be/resource/static/files/Events_2012/presentatie-herald-ruijters-09.11.2012-cross-border-antwerpen.pdf
Britain will be able to protect its flourishing shipping industry – owing to UK incentives – by instituting a sensible emission policy after negotiations with the IMO rather than the EU’s amended Sulphur Directive which threatens to decimate UK shipping routes and even close ports which play a vital role in their local communities:[253
Maritime UK: Sulphur Regulations: Bad for jobs….and the environment report pdf
An EU site noted that the ‘Connecting Europe Facility will invest €31.7 billion to upgrade Europe’s transport infrastructure. This includes €10 billion ring fenced in the Cohesion Fund for transport projects in the cohesion countries (not including Britain), with the remaining €21.7 billion available for all Member States for investing in transport infrastructure. The UK taxpayer contributes a great deal to this.
This is a dream of a Europe spanning a Single Transport Area. The bureaucrats of Brussels even imagine how it will look in the form of a fantasy tube map. Different variations of this gigantic system can be found on EU websites.
The country’s primary system of transport is its road system with over 700,000 jobs dependent on the car industry which also accounts for more than 10% of total UK exports.
SMMT Position Paper – 17/1/2013 – Review of 2020 Specific Emissions Target and Modalities
The Aviation industry contributes £49.6 billion (3.6%) to UK GDP and employs 921,000 jobs in the UK.
The EU has given €200 million out of an eventual 350 million (total budget €700 million) to research for the European Air Management System which comes under the EU’s Open Sky project.
Rail is a major part of the British economy with rail freight alone contributing £870 million to the economy, with 34,000 employed directly by Network Rail and some 190,000 across the entire industry.
Transport: A Better Railway for a Better Britain – Network Rail report – January 2013
The EU Trans European Network (TEN-T). TEN-T spans projects of all modes of transport. In the financial period up to 2013, TEN-T was financing 342 projects at a cost of €7.3 billion.
The EU asserts that ‘the completion of the TEN-T network requires about €550 billion until 2020 out of which some €215 billion can be referred to the removal of the main bottlenecks’.
The Engineering and Technology Magazine noted that the EU’s decision to allow Germany to retain the Deutsche Bahn – under their Fourth Package – has led to an outcry from rail freight companies, who worry that incumbents will be able to dominate the market.
Truckers World reported that if the EU rules on Cabotage are relaxed as intended, it will cost the British economy an estimated £165 million and cause hundreds of small hauliers to close. Until now, EU rules have only allowed foreign hauliers to take on ‘irregular’ and ‘infrequent’ work within the UK. Overseas hauliers pose a real threat to British companies as they have access to cheaper fuel and employ lower paid Eastern European drivers.
The British Chamber of Commerce estimates that the EU’s Emission standards for new Heavy-Duty Vehicles introduced in 2006 have a recurring annual cost of some £16 million and total cost by July 2010 of some £43 million.
Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf
The EU’s Vehicle Excise Duty (Reduced Pollution) (Amendment) Regulations 2000 (EU Pollution Directive 98/69/EC). This particular directive cost £10 million initially and has had a recurring annual cost of £1.2 billion. The total cost by July 2010 was some £10.4 billion.
Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf
In 2008, the EU imposed the Euro 5 & 6 Light Duty Vehicle Emission Standards on the British car industry. According to the BCC, this has the recurring cost of £989 million with an estimated total cost by July 2010 of £1.48 billion. Euro 6 is set to be introduced in September 2014 for new models (January 2015 for all models), which will entail notable reductions in permitted emission levels for Light-Duty Vehicles.
The EU’s light van regulations are “very ambitious” according to the British car makers association SMMT (Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders). In their policy document of January 2013, the SMMT points out “Technology cannot be simply migrated from cars to vans which have in any case longer development times than cars.” Last but least, the SMMT notes that “EU van registrations fell 30% in 2009 and have now been falling for five consecutive years”.
New Van CO2 Regulation (EC) No. 510/2011 – Review of 2020 Specific Emissions Target and Modalities – SMMT position paper (17 January 2013)
The time honoured UK MOT system is now at risk too: the EU Commission proposal for a Directive on Roadworthiness. According to the SMMT, the proposal will fundamentally change the UK’s effective MOT system with a new regime that is complex, difficult and costly. In other parts of the document, words and phrases such as ‘unachievable’ and ‘adverse effects….on safety’. The UK Government has identified costs of over €1 billion without any discernible benefit in road safety.
Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See EU Transport Council 29 October 2012 – entry by Minister
The SMMT want Britain to stop allowing foreign driving instructors from operating in the UK (Motor Cars (Driving Instruction) (Admission of Community Licence Holders) Regulations 1999). This is because they believe that there are insufficient controls in place to determine their fitness for the job.
SMMT response to the UK Government’s Red Tape Challenge on Road Transport Paper published 16th June 2011
Under the ‘Single European Sky’. The EU has created a programme called SESAR (formerly SESAME) which is the European air traffic control infrastructure modernisation project. The budget costs €2.1 billion (The EU, private industry and Eurocontrol (the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation – 39 European member nations, 11 which are non-EU) have all put up €700 million.
Under the Recreational Craft Directive, the EU has imposed emission standard rules on inland waterway diesel vessels (i.e. ‘pleasure boats’) through the EU’s Stage IIIA standards for non-road diesel engines. Even here, the EU makes life complicated with emission standards varying according to the engine’s displacement per cylinder.
In their Annual Dinner on the 4th February 2013, the President of the UK Chamber of Shipping, Helen Heeble, said that the “EU’s relentless tendency to over-regulate can often create burden without benefit.”[274
Such EU intervention is in contrast to the UK’s own growth-enhancing and dynamic revival of the UK fleet which can be partly attributed to a sensible UK Government tax regime through the innovative tonnage tax – another example of how UK tax incentives and not EU regulation can drive growth.
On 21st November 2012, Chairman Charles Hammond of UK Major Ports Group lambasted the fact that “northern Continental ports we compete with benefit from generous subsidy while UK ports do not.”
This is because the UK ports industry is generally privately owned whilst European ports have “publicly owned port authorities and private sector cargo handlers.” It is another example of invidious State Aid which the EU is supposed to stamp out but patently applies the rules unevenly.
British Ports Association –http://www.britishports.org.uk/sites/default/files/britishports_-_2012_red_book.pdf
The UK ports industry is the largest in Europe, in terms of total tonnage handled (560 million tonnes a year), and annual international passenger throughput is about 30 million. Moreover, it is estimated that some 130,000 people are directly employed in the UK ports industry.
5.13 Housing and Planning
EEA Lite would allow a new Swiss-style visa system on EU member nations where there is a need to control numbers to better match available housing and public services to need. MigrationWatch have estimated that 36% of new housing demand, or two million households over 20 years (up to 2033), is driven by immigration – we are essentially having to build for people who aren’t even in the country yet.
Migration Watch April 2013 Briefing Paper 12.3: http://www.migrationwatchuk.org.uk/pdfs/BP12_3.pdf
DCLG, Household Projections, 2008-2033, England: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6395/1780763.pdf
EU measures are damaging a large industry that generates many local jobs: The CBI report found in 2010 that the entire construction value chain employs some three million people and contributes 13% of GDP to the British economy.
The EU’s own standard guide for building specifications for EU buildings is very complex. The manual is a mighty 373 pages long and it has chapters with titles such as ‘The Modular Configuration of Office Space’.
Through the EIA, SEA and other measures, the EU has succeeded in creating a hopelessly confused system with seeming duplication, poorly-defined terms and open dispute. Indeed, there is so much confusion over the EU’s various assessments that the RSPB has put together a spreadsheet of how to make sense of them.
The Habitats and Wild Birds Directives – these over the top Directives have forced developers to actually ban cats and dogs from the 500-home development on the former Farnborough Airfield site in Hampshire. This was imposed as part of the planning permission conditions and seeks to protect the rare birds which nest in the Special Protection Area just over a mile away.
Daily Mail report
Parklands called ‘Suitable Alternative Natural Greenspaces’ (SANGS) are being built near the new homes to encourage children to play there and not in the Special Protection Area.
Councils such as Tower Hamlets have introduced a housing tax (Section 106 agreement under the Planning Act 2008)
to pay for them. In Bracknell, their mitigation strategy means that the developers of a three bedroom home which is built within a zone that is 400m or 5km from a Special Protection Area must pay an additional £3,111.
The Directive still requires Energy Performance Certificates whenever a building is built, sold or rented out. Moreover, only qualified energy assessors can carry out such an assessment whose certificates are only valid for ten years.
5.14 Education and Training
A guarantee to keep controversial EU-related human rights rulings out of schools and letting parents and teachers decide whether for instance to have corporal punishment or not. EU and ECHR Human Rights are providing a legislative springboard for much interference in national education.
Inclusion and education in European countries, INTMEAS
The Commission has rejected serious annual studies that list the world’s top hundred universities, dominated by the US and which figure British institutions prominently. Instead, the Commission has decided to generate its own list, starting in 2014 and seemingly largely based on self-selection amongst the larger colleges.
Reclaiming UK research from an EU power grab using major resources: EU-funded research programmes stretch out well beyond starting grants for businesses, as billions of Euros support a range of emerging and traditional technologies across the research community: e.g. €7.5 billion for the European Research Council; €80 billion for the proposed Horizon 2020 project.
Ending EU political posturing with the young: The EU’s Youth in Action Programme demonstrates that the EU targets the young politically. They target mostly in the 15-28 age bracket, and sometimes as young as 13. Its objective is described as “to inspire a sense of active citizenship, solidarity and tolerance among young Europeans and to involve them in shaping the Union’s future” Under EEA Lite the UK would leave this Programme;
Ensuring the same fair and equal treatment for English and EU students in Scottish universities over tuition fees.
Ironically, Scottish Universities are now actually targeting English students under the clearing system because English applicants pay the full tuition fees unlike their Scottish or EU counterparts;
“many of our respondents in the survey indicate a growing influence of the European Commission on national higher education policy. When comparing the various national reports, and when analyzing the survey data, one is struck by how national policies are increasingly influenced and framed by a European dimension – concerning both higher education and research ‐ without denying the importance of domestic agendas. The European Commission is seen as an emerging policy actor domestically, not only on the national level, but increasingly also by academics and university leaders (van Vught 2006; Maassen & Olsen 2007). At the same time, national governments and institutional leadership are considered to have a greater influence on many policy issues (see section 3). It is probable that national governments and institutional leadership anticipate the views and policies of the European Commission.” 
Survey: The Extent and Impact of Higher Education Governance Reform Across Europe, 2006
A majority of European Parliament MEPs have repeatedly endorsed calls for introducing into the curriculum “a specific subject on the background, goals and functioning of the European Union and its institutions, which will help young people to feel more involved in the process of European integration.”
Cavada Report, 2011
The EU directly funds academic, teaching and student organisations which support the EU. For example, the European University Continuing Education Network was awarded just under €1.2 million.
The European University College Association, whose first objective is to “work to accomplish full European integration”, received €35,000 in 2010 (the latest figures known)
whilst The European Students’ Forum “puts the idea of a unified Europe into practice” and lobbies to extend the scope of Erasmus had a €58,000 grant in 2011.
Tony Blair’s Government introduced ‘Citizenship’ classes in UK schools – but whose citizenship these were meant to serve is arguable.
The Commission also finds more direct avenues into schools. It finances educational events such as ‘Europe Loves Reading’. It produces schools material, such as a publication called the ‘Passport to the European Union’. This extols how the EU is a club that’s both normal and successful. 400,000 copies were distributed by the Commission in the UK in 2012.
More examples of EU Commission work with young people are the Young Translators Competition;
The European Voluntary Service which is an EU-supported cross between kibbutzing and the US Peace Corps
and Euroscola is a youth European Parliament for 15-18 year olds run by the Parliament.
The EU’s ERASMUS Programme has included three million students and 300,000 staff participating over the last 25 years, involving 4,000 higher education establishments and extending beyond the EU’s borders such as Norway. The annual budget is around €450 million. As at 2009/10, around 125,000 EU nationals were enrolled on UK Higher Education courses, around 5% of the total though under half of the non-EU foreign student total.
The EU’s Education, Audiovisual & Culture Executive Agency (EACEA)
The EU’s Lisbon Objectives, setting out guidance on education and training, is now generating EU harmonisation informally. The UK – if we treat its devolved systems collectively – is one of only four countries (with Malta, Ireland and the Netherlands) considered to be only “partially coherent with certain aspects of the programme”.
“while former Erasmus students may be more pro-European than their peers, this is because students who choose to take part are already more pro-European. The attitudes to Europe and voting preferences of Erasmus students do not seem to diverge from their non-mobile peers while they are abroad. Although the programme may have other benefits, expecting it to create Europhile ‘Erasmus generations’ seems unrealistic.”
What Should We Expect of Erasmus Generations? JCMS, September 2011
Tempus meanwhile is a programme that covers Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Balkans and the Mediterranean, linking up local HE establishments with EU-based organisations.
Unfortunately the ambition in Brussels always remains for inserting more spin, and it is certainly true that official EU documents proudly underline case studies where the traveller has appreciated the programme as an element of European political integration. The project brochure has one ‘Ambassador’ explain “My main objective was to educate people to become European citizens;” another accepts “I deeply believe that one of the best ways to construct a European consciousness is to start when you’re young;” a third refers to how it led to a job in the Commission.
Erasmus Changing Lives Opening Minds for 25 Years
Retaining full EU health rights for UK citizens travelling abroad, such as the EHIC (European Health Insurance Card) whilst ensuring the NHS acts to recover more in payments from EU visitors using UK NHS services;
Ending in the UK the current push is towards a system known as eHealth. Building “an eHealth area for EU citizens,” and “initiating a process for coordinated action and governance in the field of eHealth” is about making patient data transferrable across borders and opening up health markets.
Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council Conclusions, 1 December 2009
The monitoring EU body is the European Agency for Health and Safety at Work or EU-OSHA, with a €16.4 million budget and 67 staff (2011).
For example, the Directive on Display Screen Equipment, which the British Government abstained on but was outvoted under QMV anyway. This had set up costs calculated to run at between £94.9 million and £117.2 million, of which part would fall to the NHS.
See The EU Directive 90/270 on VDU-Work: a European State-of-the-Art Overview Report over the situation in the United Kingdom, editors Matthias Rauterberg and Helmut Krueger, Technical University Eindhoven. Operating costs run into the £50m area annually with benefits also assessed in this area: both figures are however controversial.
The EU’s Working Time Directive has cost lives in the NHS: the UK is partly to blame for this by deciding not to retain an NHS opt-out and pursued a contractual arrangement with junior doctors to work 48 hour weeks. The UK in any event became basically legally compliant from 2009. The SIMAP, Jaeger, and Dellas judgments saw the ECJ rule that time spent on-call in the work area or at a place designated by the employer counts as working time. For junior doctors, that meant their standby time counted against their working week hours, and in full, even if they were asleep. This has been devastating for the NHS with a need to hire in many more agency staff and a loss of operations as doctors staying overnight are also regarded as working. Trainee doctors on locum shifts are being paid more than £2,000 a day with some doctors on agency shift assignments being paid £15,000 a week. The Telegraph found that hospitals have spent more than £2 billion on locum doctors in three years from 2010/11.
The Temple Review of 2010 confirmed that Working Time rota problems led to lost opportunities for training, not least as junior doctors were being put where gaps were most frequent and that meant on night shifts, as a result of which they had to give up supervised day shifts.
Time for Training: A Review of the impact of the European Working Time Directive on the quality
The Working Time Regulations negated the expansion in consultant staff in recent years.[317
Hospitals on the Edge? The Time for Action
Six in ten consultants work more hours than three years ago and half are spending less time with their trainees. A quarter rated their hospital’s ability to deliver stable teams for patient care and for training purposes as “poor” or “very poor”. The shortfall is reportedly estimated as the equivalent of 9,000 doctors.
The Daily Telegraph, 13th September 2012
Problems have arisen relating to faulty products approved by the pan-EU licensing authority. An example of this is a hip replacement, where faults were reported from 2006, but which were only withdrawn from the EU Single Market in 2010.
The Daily Telegraph, 31st January 2013
Middlemen in the EU were discovered advising the marketers of sub-standard prosthetics to use a front address to cover their true origin, to claim EU standards, obtain approval from an Eastern European authority and thus get free right of access to the NHS market. A professor of Patient Safety has also gone on record stating that the EU’s ‘CE mark’ does not in fact guarantee patient safety.
The Independent, 13th January 2012
The Directive on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2011/65/EU (‘RoHS 2’) risks a rerun of the original RoHS Directive where medical equipment was banned as it had not been compliance tested in time, and where necessary re-designed. A complicating factor this time is the REACH directive banning certain substances, for which there is currently no alternative. The European Impact Assessment acknowledges that costs for redesigns have been cited at 7-10% of turnover for some new complex products. That translates as additional and pointless costs of €400 million to €1.6 billion for slow burn designs with critical roles or small scale applications.
Journal of Medical Device Regulation, February 2012
EU research now has to be ethically compliant including those reflected in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and take into account opinions of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE).
Guidance note, Ethics Review and Food-Related Research
Ending disgraceful unethical and politically-inspired EU practices. The European Association for Viewers Interests (EAVI), for example, seeks to regulate the internet and often attacks (Eurosceptic) Media Barons.
Ending EU Parliament attempts for national football teams like England to add the EU stars emblem to football jerseys and major European sporting events such as the London Olympics to fly the EU flag– a serious proposal that does more than anything to reveal the true intention of the EU to become a nation state in itself at our expense.
The Commission is now using Cultural Funding to develop the process of European integration. For as long as the UK is an EU member, this process of abusing Cultural Identity will continue. In addition, this is part of a wider agenda: declassified CIA documents show how Washington “wholly funded and controlled” the European Youth Campaign of the European Movement, providing 53.5% of its funds in 1958 for example, the strategic aim being presumably to contain the UK within the EU and break its strong bonds with non-EU nations, many being oil rich.
The Daily Telegraph, 19th Sept 2000, Ambrose Evans-Pritchard
The seven-year ‘Europe for Citizens’ Programme, for example, with a budget of €215 million (7 years to 2013) aims to “develop citizenship of the European Union” through programmes with aims that include “developing a sense of European identity”. In practical terms, this means paying NGOs, social groups and charities to celebrate diverse cultures and commemorate past disasters of the evil nation state, under the liturgy of today’s peace-bringing European Union.
The Europe for Citizens Programme has, according to the Commission, “to date, … has supported more than 9,000 projects per year through project grants and operational support. It reaches more than 1 million European citizens per year through thousands of projects launched at local, regional and European level.”
The DG Education budget excludes the large amount of funds distributed on Cultural projects under the EU’s Structural Funds. The Commission assesses that in the 2007-13 Programme, €6 billion was assigned to projects designated as Cultural.
These include Urban Regeneration Projects, ‘Cultural infrastructure’ such as museums, festivals and Houses of Culture, tourism, entertainment, and ‘image creation’.
Since 1985, over 40 cities have been designated as European Capitals of Culture (a misnomer, as they tend not to be existing capital cities). Cities are chosen on the criteria that “candidate cities must present the role they have played in European Culture, their links with Europe, their European identity.”
The EU Commission is a sponsor of ‘town twinning’, which has been wrestled away from the non-EU Council of Europe, which initiated this post the war. The EU states that “town twinning has a real potential to enhance mutual understanding between Citizens, fostering a sense of ownership of the European Union and finally developing a sense of European identity.”
Another fund helps support the Europe Theatre Prize Awards and lists as amongst its objectives “to enrich the communal consciousness of Europe.”
The EU correspondingly supports two architecture awards biannually: The European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture, and the Special Mention for an Emerging Architect.
The latter’s rules are for young architects who are “committed to building both the European Economy and its Culture through their commissions.”
The EU’s MEDIA Programme seeks “to strive for a stronger European Audiovisual sector, reflecting and respecting Europe’s Cultural identity and heritage.”
The EU has also established a European Heritage Label. The first nine sites to be chosen by the Commission were nominated in 2013.
EMEE is the Programme of Eurovision: Museums Exhibiting Europe. With a budget of €2 million a year, this supports exhibitions that add a European element to their displays.
There is even a specific budget dedicated to promoting EU visibility at sporting events. In 2011, from the grant stream Special Annual Events, this funded a European schools football competition, subsidised a Special Olympics, and organised the tenth biannual European Youth Olympic Winter Festival. In 2007, it supported a special EU (ostensibly UEFA) v. Manchester United football match.
In January 2013, a High Level Group on Media Freedom and Pluralism reported to the Commission in the context of the Leveson Report to provide an EU angle. This set out a series of 30 ‘Super-Leveson’ recommendations, including media literacy to be taught at schools, EU-level monitoring of media freedom (and by extension liberties) by a new quango, EU grants for journalists, EU funds for media studies lecturers, and EU-wide media standards monitored by the Commission.
A Free and Pluralistic Media to Sustain European Democracy
There are also the European Business Awards for the Environment, the European Design Award for a Sustainable Present (EESC), the European Enterprise Awards, and the EU Prize for Women Innovators. There has also been the 12 Golden Stars Awards of Active European Citizenship.
The scale of the budget dedicated to ‘selling the EU’ is gargantuan, because it encapsulates both direct expenditure but also many areas of EU spending that have been recognised as having PR value and have been branded to match.
Open Europe’s The Hard Sell remains the definitive study to date, building upon a Bruges Group paper called Hearts and Minds. A 2013 IEA paper, Euro Puppets, usefully brought both documents up to date
The direct Communications budget of the Commission runs to €266 million a year.
But this excludes €19 million spent on Prince (an information programme for European citizens)
The European Parliament has been reported as intending to spend €2 million on engaging in a ‘blogging war’ with Eurosceptics in advance of the 2014 elections, the Communications Strategy being that of selling ‘more Europe’ rather than less.
The DailyTelegraph, 3rd February 2013
7. Frequently Asked Questions
A3 ‘Half our trade’ does not mean ‘half our economy’- let’s get it in proportion. Most British trade is within Britain – 80% of our economy is British citizens and businesses buying British goods and services. Some 20% of our economy depends on international trade; and less than half of that (around 8%) is trade with the EU. Britain is increasingly trading more with the Rest of the World than with the EU.
This is where UK exports to non-EU countries sent via a transhipment centre such as Rotterdam are counted as exports to the EU, even though their ultimate destination is not in the EU.
A3 The UK will be able to secure a very advantageous EEA Lite agreement with the EU. The UK is the EU’s second biggest trading partner after Germany – bigger even than France
Civitas Review – January 2013 – The British Car Market and Industry
Q4 Switzerland estimates that they currently pay just under 550 million Swiss francs for access to EU markets but EU membership would cost them net payments of some 3.4 billion Swiss francs. British Governments of all colours consistently refuse to do a similar cost benefit analysis of British membership of the EU, claiming that the benefits are ‘self evident’.
A5 But it’s our (your) money anyway! These payments come in a large part from the British taxpayer, from funds paid to the EU, with a smaller and smaller proportion being recycled back to us. Britain pays in £20 billion a year, and currently receives back some £3 billion in CAP farming payments
and should receive back some £6.7 billion total over seven years from 2007-13 in regional aid payments.
A6 But as a result of this change, there will also be many more job opportunities in the UK as the British Government will now be free to restrict immigration from the EU through a visa system similar to that currently applied to non-EU citizens. Currently, some 1.4 million EU nationals work in the UK compared to some 407,000 Britons who work in the EU.
A10 In 2004 the then President of the European Commission Romano Prodi stated that a newly independent state must apply for membership in its own right rather than inherit any existing membership. This means that any member country has the right to object to Scotland’s (and other nation state’s) membership applications.
A 10 The reality of the Berlin Formula or EU imposed austerity is best seen in Greece which is being forced to axe tens of thousands of public sector jobs
and a massive sell off of public assets
 Fresh Start Project, Chapter 1, Trade
 http://www.theyworkforyou.com/lords/?id=2012-11-14a.1507.0 (Hansard Reply 14th November 2012 and http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201213/ldhansrd/text/121114-0001.htm
 Global Britain Briefing Note 62
 Tore Grønningsæter, EFTA, in personal interview
 http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-04/norway-s-740-billion-oil-fund-may-be-restructured-solberg-says.html and population reference – http://www.newsinenglish.no/2012/03/18/norwegians-now-number-5-million/
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-22188028 – 18th April 2013
 Ernst & Young Press Release dated 2nd June 2010 www.ey.com/UK/en/Newsroom/News-releases/GOV—10-06-02—UK-tops-European-inwardinvestment-league
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11216061 – 1st July 2013
 Global Vision – UK-EU Trade creates far fewer jobs in the UK than in the rest of the EU, Ruth Lea
 http://edition.cnn.com/2013/06/06/business/china-european-union-wine-solar-panel-tariff-war http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/9229031a-cdb1-11e2-8313-00144feab7de.html#axzz2capus1tv
 http://www.globalbritain.org/BNN/BN76.pdf -GB Briefing Note: 76. Dated May 2012
 Global Britain Briefing Note No. 62
 Global Britain Briefing Note No. 66
 Global Britain Briefing Note No. 67
 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/9764781/UK-reclaims-sixth-largest-economy-slot.html – reporting findings of the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR in December 2012)
 Global Britain Briefing Note 65 quotes studies – A Cost Too Far by Ian Milne and other studies
 The BCC Burdens Barometer 2010 and Electronic Regulations Directive – Ref -http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2353711/Priti-Patel-New-Brussels-red-tape-costs-Britain-astonishing-5billion-just-2-years.html and REACH source – Premier Farnell Report published in March 2009 – entitled ‘Step to Step Guide to the REACH regulations’
 QMV – http://www.consilium.europa.eu/council, 29 UK votes divided by 352 total number of votes ) x 100 equals 8.24%
 Swiss Confederation – Federal Department of Foreign Affairs – Bilateral Agreements Switzerland – EU report
 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/9383678/Is-Norways-EU-example-really-an-option-for-Britain.html; says £340 million. British Influence says £1.7 billion
 http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-kingdom http://data.worldbank.org/country/norway
 House of Commons Research paper – ‘Leaving the EU’ – 13/42 – 1 July 2013
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_conflicts_in_Europe#1945-1989 and news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5379586.stm
 The Guardian reported 100,000 dead in Bosnian civil war in 2008 -www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/22/warcrimes.balkans1
 House of Lords report – March 2013 – http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201213/ldselect/ldeucom/147/147.pdf and in December 2012 BBC reported on the 2013 budget – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20522201
 http://www.bettertransport.org.uk/blogs/traffic/say-no-to-the-EU-allowing-in-mega-trucks and Freight on Rail site: http://www.freightonrail.org.uk/NoMegaTrucks.html
 http://openeuropeblog.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/deja-vu-anyone-eu-auditors-refuse-to.html http://fullfact.org/factchecks/has_eu_budget_rejected_auditors_18_years-28593 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/eu/9657673/Audit-seriously-undermines-credibility-of-EU-spending.html
 Global Britain Briefing Note No 86 – 31st May 2013/Data from the May 2013 edition of the Monthly Bulletin of the European Central Bank (www.ecb.int) Monthly Bulletin, Table 7.2, Current & Capital Accounts, page S 63
 www.labour-party.org.uk/manifestos/1983/1983-labour-manifesto.shtml and www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/man/lab83.htm
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p315
 Open Europe Report: Less Regulation: Four Ways to Cut EU Red Tape and EU in a Nutshell, p315
 Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley, p3
 Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See p3
 Trade Policy Unit, Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) – October 2013 http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See p3
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
 The Bruges Group Report: The Single Market and British Withdrawal, Ian Milne, 2011, p7
 http://www.cps.org.uk/blog/q/date/2012/12/20/11-reasons-to-be-full-of-festive-cheer/- and Daniel Hannan on his blog in June 2012 said Eurozone ‘about to overtake’ – http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/danielhannan/100163336/look-at-these-graphs-any-possible-argument-for-remaining-in-the-eu-has-been-blown-away/ and House of Commons Library Report entitled UK – Commonwealth trade statistics, 6th December 2012 – Figures relate to 2011. Surplus in 2011 – £ 0.7 billion in goods/£10 billion in services
 House of Commons Library Report: UK – Commonwealth trade statistics, 6th December 2012 – Figures relate to 2011. Surplus in 2011 -£ 0.7 billion in goods/£10 billion in services
 Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p241
 Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP
 from briefing to Author by top MEP and not subsequently denied when the EU source was challenged directly at a London meeting
 The REACH Directive and its Impact on the European Chemical Industry: A Critical Review; INSEAD, 2008
 EuActiv.com, 8 May 2013
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p235
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p476
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p476
 BCC Burdens Barometer – quoted in Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP
 The Financial Times, 25th September 2013
http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/0f54735a-25f6-11e3-8ef6-00144feab7de.html#axzz2gksBs0Xm and https://www.gov.uk/government/news/legal-challenge-launched-into-new-rules-on-bankers-pay
 http://www.global-vision.net/files/ downloads/download322.pdf
 Global Vision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See P9
 The Guardian,1st April 2013
 Open Europe 2007 paper, The Truth Behind Tax Harmonisation
 www.parliament.uk/briefingpapers/commons/lib/research/rp2010/RP10-062.pdf – How much legislation comes from Europe? – Commons Library Research Paper
 Global Vision report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See P16
 The Guardian, 26th April 2013
 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financialcrisis/10004726/Cyprus-bail-out-vote-stirs-fresh-jitters-as-slump-fears-grow-in-Europe.html – Dated 18th April 2013
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p112
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham
 The Observer, 9 June 2013
 House of Commons Library report: Voting Behaviour in the EU Council, 23rd May 2013 – report states that the UK is the “furthest removed in its voting behaviour from the other coalitions in the Council”
 Diaries: Alan Clark, Phoenix, 1994 edition, p139
 The European Court of Justice, National Governments, and Legal Integration in the European Union, 1998, Geoffrey Garrett, R. Daniel Kelemen and Heiner Schulz
 Huffington Post, 14th December 2011
 6011/1/13 Missions for Growth – Information from the Commission
 Retrospective from House of Commons EU Select Committee, 27th Report
 See the TPA’s paper on EU Defence, which includes a costing and is a useful introduction to this area
 Computer Weekly, 19 February 2013
 Statewatch – http://www.statewatch.org/Targeted-issues/EIO/eio-observatory.htm – Note; It should be noted that plans are still in the draft stage
 http://www.migrationwatchuk.org/briefingPaper/document/235, which also includes data on the economic benefits question
 The Daily Mail, 14 May 2013
 BBC, 16 November 2007
 See for instance http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/data-and-resources/charts/create/migrants-uk/stock/uk and the associated ONS data
 EU in a Nutshell, Dr Lee Rotherham, p462
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-15747103 and MigrationWatch finding as reported by the BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-16464940 – January 2012
 The Daily Telegraph, 8 September 2011; The Daily Mail, 11 April 2011
 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/brits_abroad/html/n_america.stm and http://www.ippr.org/images/media/files/publication/2011/05/BA_exec_summ_1548.pdf
 The Territorial Politics of Welfare’ by Nicola McEwen and Luis Moreno , published by Taylor and Francis e-Library 2008 and in 2005 by the Taylor and Francis imprint Routledge
 Social Security Co-ordination: work anywhere in Europe report – Can be downloaded from this page -http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=850&langId=en
 CIA Fact Book – https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2195.html
 The EU As Lawmaker: The Impact of EU Directives On National Regulation In The Netherlands By Mark Bovens and Kutsal Yesilkagit – Dated 2010
 p10/Switzerland-EU Bilateral Agreements Document pdf
 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/pensions/9231696/State-pension-will-cost-146000-per-household.html) (UK Gov source – http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/pensions/pensions-in-the-national-accounts/uk-national-accounts-supplementary-table-on-pensions–2010-/index.html
 Migration Watch PR – Economic 1.24 ‘Immigration and Pensions’
 Migration Watch Economic 1.24 ‘Immigration and Pensions’ report
 Many a rainy afternoon could be spent dipping into the recipients on http://farmsubsidy.org
 Seafish: The economic impacts of the UK sea fishing and fish processing sectors: An input-output analysis’report, published by Seafish Economics and Fraser of Allander Institute at Strathclyde University
 Open Europe – More for Less: Making the EU’s farm policy work for growth and the environment, February 2012
 Personal briefing by Hilde Gjengedal, senior advisor for the Norwegian Farmers Union
 See for example BSE Crisis and Food Safety Regulation: A Comparison of the UK and Germany, Beck/Kewell/Asenova
 See http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/01/08100107/13 for links to the various Government costings of these directives
 The British Chamber of Commerce Burdens Barometer put the cost of the ‘The Pesticides (Maximum Residue Levels in Crops, Food and Feeding Stuffs (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2000 – at 107million total by July 2010. (Quoted in Binley and Lea p47)
 Reference: EU source cited by TEAM Working Paper on fisheries, 2002, authored by Dr Richard North
 Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP. p23
 The UK Government defines Non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) as any mobile machine, item of transportable industrial equipment, or vehicle – with or without bodywork – that is: not intended for carrying passengers or goods on the road and installed with a combustion engine – either an internal spark ignition (SI) petrol engine, or a compression ignition diesel engine. Examples are generators, bulldozers, construction machinery fork lifts and mobile cranes – http://www.dft.gov.uk/vca/enforcement/non-road-mobile-mach.asp
 IOD Report – In their own words – red tape case studies from IoD members, 2008
 IOD Report – In their own words – red tape case studies from IoD members, 2008
 The Daily Telegraph, 24th February 2010
 UK Government local government official statistics
 The Financial Times, 22nd May 2013
 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/windpower/8713128/The-aristocrats-cashing-in-on-Britains-wind-farm-subsidies.html and http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/feb/28/windfarms-risk-free-millions-for-landowners
 Why is Wind Power So Expensive? An Economic Analysis; Professor Gordon Hughes, GWPF, 2012
 SolarPowerPortal, 23 February 2013
 Draft partial regulatory impact assessment of environmental quality standards for implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the UK, DEFRA
 Bathing Water Directive Revisions: What are the Benefits to England and Wales? A Stated Preference Study; Susana Mourato, Stavros Georgiou Ece Ozdemiroglu, Jodi Newcombe and Alexandra Howarth, CSERGE Working Paper ECM 03-12
 See for instance EurActiv, 22 July 2005
 http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/sectors/32445.aspx and possibly more, as 979 sites stopped before the Directive came into effect
 11th January 2012, c364W
 http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/noise-action-plan/index.htm – Dated 19th June 2009
 Guardian, 11 March 2011
 COM (2001) 0321
 BBC, 20 June 2002
 Consensus and Controversy: The Debate on Man Made Global Warming; Emil A.Røyrvik, 2012
 The Daily Telegraph, 20th February 2010
 Bloomberg, 21st January 2013
 The Economist, 6 April 2013
 The Abundance of Fossil Fuels: Why We Will Not Run Out of Fossil Fuels; Philipp Mueller, GPWF
 See in particular The Shale Gas Shock, Lord Ridley, GPWF, 2011
 Herald Ruijters, Head of Unit for Trans European Network, DG Mobility and Transport – Argued in Cross Border Forum in Antwerp in November 2012 that •€1.5 trillion of investment needs by 2030 – http://www.europarl.be/ressource/static/files/Events_2012/presentatie-herald-ruijters-09.11.2012
 http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2012/09/14/EP-passes-sulfur-fuel-efficiency-bills/UPI-29021347618600/ and Maritime UK: Sulphur Regulations: Bad for jobs….and the environment report pdf
 such as at: http://www.europarl.be/ressource/static/files/Events_2012/presentatie-herald-ruijters-09.11.2012-cross-border-antwerpen.pdf and on the last page – http://ec.europa.eu/bepa/pdf/cef_brochure.pdf
 SMMT Position Paper – 17/1/2013 – Review of 2020 Specific Emissions Target and Modalities
 http://www.networkrail.co.uk/aspx/10439.aspx and Transport: A Better Railway for a Better Britain – Network Rail report – January 2013 and http://www.stagecoach.com/~/media/Files/S/Stagecoach-Group/Attachments/pdf/rail-industry-faqs.pdf). and http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/Documents/Finance/Air-Passenger-Duty/Written-Submissions/Oxford-Economics-Economic-Benefits-from-Air-Transport-in-UK.pdf
 Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf
 Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf
 New Van CO2 Regulation (EC) No. 510/2011 – Review of 2020 Specific Emissions Target and Modalities – SMMT position paper (17 January 2013)
 Globalvision Report: Britain and Europe: a new Relationship, Ruth Lea and Brian Binley MP http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/20105070/Global%20Vision%20Paper%20LR.pdf See EU Transport Council 29 October 2012 – entry by Minister
 SMMT response to the UK Government’s Red Tape Challenge on Road Transport Paper published 16th June 2011
 http://www.sesarju.eu/about/funding and http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/air/sesar/doc/2010_the_future_of_flying_en.pdf and http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/air/single_european_sky/ and Eurocontrol ref – http://www.eurocontrol.int/content/about-us
 British Ports Association -http://www.britishports.org.uk/sites/default/files/britishports_-_2012_red_book.pdf
 Migration Watch April 2013 Briefing Paper 12.3 – http://www.migrationwatchuk.org.uk/pdfs/BP12_3.pdf and DCLG, Household Projections, 2008-2033, England, URL: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6395/1780763.pdf
 Daily Mail report
 Inclusion and education in European countries, INTMEAS
 The Extent and Impact of Higher Education Governance Reform Across Europe, 2006
 Cavada Report, 2011
 COM(2009) 640
 What Should We Expect of Erasmus Generations? JCMS, September 2011
 Erasmus Changing Lives Opening Minds for 25 Years
 Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council Conclusions, 1 December 2009
 See The EU Directive 90/270 on VDU-Work: a European State-of-the-Art Overview Report over the situation in the United Kingdom, editors Matthias Rauterberg and Helmut Krueger, Technical University Eindhoven. Operating costs run into the £50m area annually with benefits also assessed in this area: both figures are however controversial.
 Time for Training: A Review of the impact of the European Working Time Directive on the quality
 Hospitals on the Edge? The Time for Action
 The Daily Telegraph, 13th September 2012
 The Daily Telegraph, 31st January 2013
 The Independent, 13th January 2012
 Journal of Medical Device Regulation, February 2012
 Guidance note, Ethics Review and Food-Related Research
 The Daily Telegraph, 19th Sept 2000, Ambrose Evans-Pritchard
 A Free and Pluralistic Media to Sustain European Democracy
 Open Europe’s The Hard Sell remains the definitive study to date, building upon a Bruges Group paper called Hearts and Minds. A 2013 IEA paper, Euro Puppets, usefully brought both documents up to date
 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/budget/data/LBL2013/EN/SEC03.pdf, page 203
 http://www.welcomeurope.com/european-funds/prince-494+394.html – Prince has budget of 13 million Euros for 2010-13
 The DailyTelegraph, 3rd February 2013
 Civitas Review – January 2013 – The British Car Market and Industry
 www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/agriculture/8451261/Reform-of-farm-subsidies-risk-putting-UK farmers-out-of-business-MPs.html